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A theoretical grounding and test of the GEM model

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  • Jonathan Levie

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  • Erkko Autio

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    Abstract

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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s11187-008-9136-8
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Springer in its journal Small Business Economics.

    Volume (Year): 31 (2008)
    Issue (Month): 3 (October)
    Pages: 235-263

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    Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:31:y:2008:i:3:p:235-263

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    Web page: http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100338

    Related research

    Keywords: Entrepreneurial activity; Entrepreneurial Framework Conditions; L26; L53; O43;

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    References

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    4. Christian Keuschnigg & Søren Bo Nielsen, . "Public Policy for Venture Capital," EPRU Working Paper Series 01-06, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
    5. Zoltan Acs & Sameeksha Desai & Leora Klapper, 2008. "What does “entrepreneurship” data really show?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 265-281, October.
    6. Ajzen, Icek, 1991. "The theory of planned behavior," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 179-211, December.
    7. Axel Dreher & Martin Gassebner, 2007. "Greasing the Wheels of Entrepreneurship? The Impact of Regulations and Corruption on Firm Entry," CESifo Working Paper Series 2013, CESifo Group Munich.
    8. Carter, Nancy M. & Gartner, William B. & Reynolds, Paul D., 1996. "Exploring start-up event sequences," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 151-166, May.
    9. Davidsson, Per & Henrekson, Magnus, 2000. "Determinants of the Prevalence of Start-ups and High-Growth Firms," Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 381, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 26 May 2002.
    10. Claudio Michelacci, 2003. "Low Returns in R&D Due to the Lack of Entrepreneurial Skills," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(484), pages 207-225, January.
    11. Zoltan J. Acs & Bo Carlsson & Pontus Braunerhjelm & David B. Audretsch, . "The Missing Link," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-08, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    12. Zoltan Acs & José Amorós, 2008. "Entrepreneurship and competitiveness dynamics in Latin America," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 305-322, October.
    13. Shane, Scott, 2002. "Executive Forum: University technology transfer to entrepreneurial companies," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 17(6), pages 537-552, October.
    14. Edward P. Lazear, 2004. "Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 208-211, May.
    15. Kawai, Hiroki & Urata, Shujiro, 2002. " Entry of Small and Medium Enterprises and Economic Dynamism in Japan," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 18(1-3), pages 41-51, Feb.- May.
    16. Roy Thurik & Lorraine Uhlaner, 2004. "Post-Materialism: A Cultural Factor influencing Total Entrepreneurial Activity across Nations," Scales Research Reports N200321, EIM Business and Policy Research.
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    18. Schumpeter, Joseph A., 1947. "The Creative Response in Economic History," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(02), pages 149-159, November.
    19. Dubini, Paola, 1989. "The influence of motivations and environment on business start-ups: Some hints for public policies," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 11-26, January.
    20. Goldfarb, Brent & Henrekson, Magnus, 2003. "Bottom-up versus top-down policies towards the commercialization of university intellectual property," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 639-658, April.
    21. Klapper, Leora & Laeven, Luc & Rajan, Raghuram, 2006. "Entry regulation as a barrier to entrepreneurship," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 591-629, December.
    22. Christian Keuschnigg & Søren Bo Nielsen, 2002. "Start-ups, Venture Capitalists, and the Capital Gains Tax," CESifo Working Paper Series 742, CESifo Group Munich.
    23. Baltagi, Badi H. & Wu, Ping X., 1999. "Unequally Spaced Panel Data Regressions With Ar(1) Disturbances," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(06), pages 814-823, December.
    24. Steven Klepper, 2002. "The capabilities of new firms and the evolution of the US automobile industry," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(4), pages 645-666, August.
    25. Zoltan Acs & Sameeksha Desai & Jolanda Hessels, 2008. "Entrepreneurship, economic development and institutions," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 219-234, October.
    26. Geroski, P. A., 1995. "What do we know about entry?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 421-440, December.
    27. Kevin M. Murphy & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1990. "The Allocation of Talent: Implications for Growth," NBER Working Papers 3530, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    28. Ardichvili, Alexander & Cardozo, Richard & Ray, Sourav, 2003. "A theory of entrepreneurial opportunity identification and development," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 105-123, January.
    29. B. Clarysse & J. Bruneel, 2006. "Nurturing and Growing Innovative Start-ups: The Role of Policy as Integrator," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 06/424, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    30. Ulrich Witt, 2002. "How Evolutionary Is Schumpeter'S Theory Of Economic Development?," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(1-2), pages 7-22.
    31. Wildeman, R.E. & Hofstede, G. & Noorderhaven, N.G. & Thurik, A.R., 1998. "Culture's Role in Entrepreneurship; Self-employment out of Dissatisfaction," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-76587, Tilburg University.
    32. Audretsch, David B. & Keilbach, Max C. & Lehmann, Erik E., 2006. "Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195183511.
    33. Romer, Paul M, 1990. "Endogenous Technological Change," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages S71-102, October.
    34. Martin A. Carree & A. Roy Thurik, 2000. "The Life Cycle of the U.S. Tire Industry," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 67(2), pages 254-278, July.
    35. Israel M. Kirzner, 1997. "Entrepreneurial Discovery and the Competitive Market Process: An Austrian Approach," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(1), pages 60-85, March.
    36. Zoltán Ács & Attila Varga, 2005. "Entrepreneurship, Agglomeration and Technological Change," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 323-334, 02.
    37. Storey, D. J. & Tether, B. S., 1998. "Public policy measures to support new technology-based firms in the European Union," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(9), pages 1037-1057, April.
    38. Nicola Cetorelli & Philip Strahan, 2004. "Finance as a barrier to entry: bank competition and industry structure in local U.S. markets," Working Paper Series WP-04-04, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    39. Tomas Kögel, 2004. "Did the association between fertility and female employment within OECD countries really change its sign?," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 45-65, February.
    40. Chen, Chao C. & Greene, Patricia Gene & Crick, Ann, 1998. "Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 295-316, July.
    41. Robinson, Peter B. & Sexton, Edwin A., 1994. "The effect of education and experience on self-employment success," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 141-156, March.
    42. Isabel Grilo & Jesus-Maria Irigoyen, 2006. "Entrepreneurship in the EU: To Wish and not to be," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 26(4), pages 305-318, 05.
    43. Malerba, Franco & Orsenigo, Luigi, 1996. "Schumpeterian patterns of innovation are technology-specific," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 451-478, May.
    44. Geroski, Paul A, 1989. "Entry, Innovation and Productivity Growth," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(4), pages 572-78, November.
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