Children in home worker households in Pakistan and Indonesia
AbstractPurpose – The aim of the paper is to understand whether children in home-worker (HW) households in Pakistan and Indonesia are more likely to work than other children, and, if so, how this impacts their capabilities. The paper also aims to outline some policy implications for the two countries. Design/methodology/approach – The data are drawn from two ad hoc surveys and country studies carried out in Pakistan and Indonesia in 2000/2001. The paper examines the incidence and reasons of child work and child schooling in home-worker households, the work conditions, and gender issues. A bivariate probit is applied to analyse the determinants of child activity status. Findings – Children from HW households have a higher probability of working. There is evidence of the feminisation of home work from childhood. This is dramatic in Pakistan while little evidence is found for Indonesia. In Pakistani urban slums the majority of children are working, but in Indonesia they are in school. The mother's education and per capita income/expenditure or assets in the household are important determinants of the child's activity status. Research limitations/implications – The model cannot use the control group for econometric analysis since the number of households and children interviewed (although randomly chosen) are not sufficient. Practical implications – Collective action plays a role in the reduction of children “only working”. The number of hours that children work in Pakistan suggests that their ability to do school-related activities is likely to be impacted. Originality/value – Although child labour is common in home-based manufacturing activities in the informal sector in most Asian developing countries research on child labour remains scarce. This paper contributes to this area of research.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Emerald Group Publishing in its journal International Journal of Manpower.
Volume (Year): 31 (2010)
Issue (Month): 2 ( May)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.emeraldinsight.com
Postal: Emerald Group Publishing, Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley, BD16 1WA, UK
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Cigno, Alessandro & Rosati, Furio Camillo, 2005. "The Economics of Child Labour," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199264452.
- Cameron,A. Colin & Trivedi,Pravin K., 2005. "Microeconometrics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521848053, October.
- F. Rosati & M. Rossi, 2001. "Children's Working Hours, School Enrolment and Human Capital Accumulation: Evidence from Pakistan and Nicaragua," UCW Working Paper 8, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
- Mehrotra, Santosh & Biggeri, Mario, 2005. "Can industrial outwork enhance homeworkers' capabilities? Evidence from clusters in South Asia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1735-1757, October.
- Christopher Heady, 2000. "What is the Effect of Child Labour on Learning Achievement? Evidence from Ghana," Innocenti Working Papers inwopa00/7, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.
- Prugl, Elisabeth & Tinker, Irene, 1997. "Microentrepreneurs and homeworkers: Convergent categories," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(9), pages 1471-1482, September.
- World Bank, 2002. "World Development Indicators 2002," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13921, October.
- M.Biggeri & L.Guarcello & S.Lyon & F.Rosati, 2003. "The Puzzle of 'Idle' Children: Neither in School nor performing Economic Activity: Evidence from six Countries," UCW Working Paper 5, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Virginia Chapman).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.