The Relation between Child Labour and Mothers' Work: The Case of India
AbstractThe paper deals with child labour in developing countries. We address a problem that has recently drawn much attention at the international level, that is, how to invest in women’s rights to advance the rights of both women and children. We study the problem from a new perspective. In our theoretical model we assume that the child’s time is an extension of her/his mother’s time, and that she has to decide how to allocate it. We estimate two empirical specifications, both multinomial logit. The first one, in line with the standard approach in the literature, estimates a model of the probability of the different child’s states, conditional on her/his mother’s states. The second empirical specification, in line with our theoretical model, estimates the mother-child states jointly. Using a unique, rich and representative data survey for all Indian states and for urban and rural India (NFHS-2, 1998/9), we select our sample drawing information from the household data set and the women’s data set. Our results show that the presence of the mother in the family increases children welfare, in terms of educational opportunities and protection from work activities. All our results indicate that the mother tends to stay home and send her children to school the better is the father’s employment position and the wealthier is the family. However, we observe a perverse effect. If the mother works, since female job quality and wage levels are very low, also her children have a higher probability to work.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 3099.
Length: 36 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2007
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as 'The Relation between child work and the employment of mothers in India' in: International Journal of Manpower, 2010, 31 (2), 232-257
Contact details of provider:
Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Other versions of this item:
- Gianna Claudia Giannelli & Francesca Francavilla, 2007. "The Relation between Child Labour and Mothers’ Work: The Case of India," CHILD Working Papers wp22_07, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
- J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
- J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
- O15 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
- O18 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2007-11-10 (All new papers)
- NEP-CWA-2007-11-10 (Central & Western Asia)
- NEP-DEV-2007-11-10 (Development)
- NEP-HRM-2007-11-10 (Human Capital & Human Resource Management)
- NEP-LAB-2007-11-10 (Labour Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Basu, Kaushik, 2001.
"Gender and Say: A Model of Household Behavior with Endogenously-Determined Balance of Power,"
01-01, Cornell University, Center for Analytic Economics.
- Kaushik Basu, 2006. "Gender and Say: a Model of Household Behaviour with Endogenously Determined Balance of Power," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 116(511), pages 558-580, 04.
- Kaushik Basu, 2004. "Gender and Say A Model of Household Behavior with Endogenously-determined Balance of Power," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 2054, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- L.Guarcello & S.Lyon & F.Rosati, 2006. "Child labour and Education for All: an issue paper," UCW Working Paper 19, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
- Haddad, Lawrence & Hoddinott, John & Alderman, Harold & DEC, 1994. "Intrahousehold resource allocation : an overview," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1255, The World Bank.
- Christopher J. Ruhm, 2004.
"Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 39(1).
- Christopher J. Ruhm, 2000. "Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development," NBER Working Papers 7666, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Christopher Heady, 2000. "What is the Effect of Child Labour on Learning Achievement? Evidence from Ghana," Innocenti Working Papers inwopa00/7, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.
- Cigno, Alessandro & Rosati, Furio C. & Guarcello, Lorenzo, 2002.
"Does Globalization Increase Child Labor?,"
Elsevier, vol. 30(9), pages 1579-1589, September.
- Edmonds, Eric V., 2008.
Handbook of Development Economics,
- Anne Case & Christina Paxson & Joseph Ableidinger, 2002. "Orphans in Africa," NBER Working Papers 9213, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jere R. Behrman & Andrew D. Foster & Mark R. Rosenzweig & Prem Vashishtha, 1999.
"Women's Schooling, Home Teaching, and Economic Growth,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(4), pages 682-714, August.
- Jere Behrman & Andrew D. Foster & Mark Rosenzweig & Prem Vahsishtha, 1997. "Women's Schooling, Home Teaching, and Economic Growth," Home Pages _071, University of Pennsylvania.
- Eric V. Edmonds & Nina Pavcnik, 2005. "Child Labor in the Global Economy," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 19(1), pages 199-220, Winter.
- Basu, Kaushik & Das, Sanghamitra & Dutta, Bhaskar, 2010.
"Child labor and household wealth: Theory and empirical evidence of an inverted-U,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 8-14, January.
- Basu, Kaushik & Das, Sanghamitra & Dutta, Bhaskar, 2007. "Child Labor and Household Wealth: Theory and Empirical Evidence of an Inverted-U," Working Papers 07-02, Cornell University, Center for Analytic Economics.
- Basu, Kaushik & Das, Sanghamitra & Dutta, Bhaskar, 2009. "Child Labor and Household Wealth : Theory and Empirical Evidence of an Inverted-U," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 888, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
- Basu, Kaushik & Das, Sanghamitra & Dutta, Bhaskar, 2007. "Child Labor and Household Wealth: Theory and Empirical Evidence of an Inverted-U," IZA Discussion Papers 2736, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Kaushik Basu & Sanghamitra Das & Bhaskar Dutta, 2007. "Child labor and household wealth: Theory and empirical evidence of an inverted-U," Indian Statistical Institute, Planning Unit, New Delhi Discussion Papers 07-01, Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi, India.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 1999.
"Does child labor displace schooling? - evidence on behavioral responses to an enrollment subsidy,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2116, The World Bank.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 2000. "Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioural Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages C158-75, March.
- Giannelli, Gianna Claudia & Francavilla, Francesca, 2007.
"Do Family Planning Programmes Help Women's Employment? The Case of Indian Mothers,"
IZA Discussion Papers
2762, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Gianna Claudia Giannelli & Francesca Francavilla, 2007. "Do Family Planning Programmes Help Women’s Employment? The Case of Indian Mothers," CHILD Working Papers wp05_07, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
- Jean Drèze & Mamta Murthi, 2001. "Fertility, Education, and Development: Evidence from India," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 27(1), pages 33-63.
- Mealli, Fabrizia & Pudney, Stephen & Rosati, Furio C., 2006. "Measuring the economic vulnerability of children in developing countries: an application to Guatemala," ISER Working Paper Series 2006-28, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Cigno, Alessandro & Rosati, Furio Camillo, 2005. "The Economics of Child Labour," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199264452.
- Keane, Michael P, 1992. "A Note on Identification in the Multinomial Probit Model," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(2), pages 193-200, April.
- Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-27, June.
- Ermisch, John & Francesconi, Marco, 2002. "The effect of parents' employment on children's educational attainment: 2002 ed," ISER Working Paper Series 2002-21, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Cigno, Alessandro & Rosati, Furio C. & Tzannatos, Zafiris, 2002. "Child labor handbook," Social Protection Discussion Papers 25507, The World Bank.
- Ucw, 2008. "Understanding children's work in Uganda," UCW Country Studies 9, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
- Francavilla, Francesca & Giannelli, Gianna Claudia & Grilli, Leonardo, 2008. "School Attendance of Children and the Work of Mothers: A Joint Multilevel Model for India," IZA Discussion Papers 3531, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Ellen Webbink & Jeroen Smits & Eelke Jong, 2013. "Household and Context Determinants of Child Labor in 221 Districts of 18 Developing Countries," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 110(2), pages 819-836, January.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.