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Child Labor and Schooling in Bolivia: Who's Falling Behind? The Roles of Domestic Work, Gender, and Ethnicity

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  • Zapata, Daniela
  • Contreras, Dante
  • Kruger, Diana

Abstract

Summary We analyze the role of gender and ethnicity in the work-school tradeoff among school-aged children. We observe domestic chores in Bolivian data and consider them work, finding that girls are 51% more likely than boys to be out of school and working, mostly in domestic activities. For indigenous children the probability is 60% higher than non-indigenous, and indigenous girls are 23% more likely than boys to be out of school and working. A more comprehensive measure of child labor reveals that in countries with large indigenous populations, indigenous girls are most vulnerable to future poverty and exclusion due to low education.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal World Development.

Volume (Year): 39 (2011)
Issue (Month): 4 (April)
Pages: 588-599

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Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:39:y:2011:i:4:p:588-599

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev

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Keywords: child labor domestic work schooling gender Latin America Bolivia;

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References

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  1. Eric Edmonds, 2007. "Child Labor," Working Papers id:988, eSocialSciences.
  2. Ranjan Ray, 2000. "Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 3-19.
  3. Dante Contreras Guajardo & Diana kruger & Marcelo Ochoa & Daniela Zapata, 2007. "The role of social networks in employment outcomes of Bolivian women," Working Papers wp251, University of Chile, Department of Economics.
  4. T. Paul Schultz, 2001. "School Subsidies for the Poor: Evaluating the Mexican Progresa Poverty Program," Working Papers 834, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  5. Jackline Wahba, 2006. "The influence of market wages and parental history on child labour and schooling in Egypt," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 19(4), pages 823-852, October.
  6. Paul Schultz, T., 2004. "School subsidies for the poor: evaluating the Mexican Progresa poverty program," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 199-250, June.
  7. Eric Edmonds, 2006. "Understanding sibling differences in child labor," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 19(4), pages 795-821, October.
  8. Wahba, J., 2006. "The influence of market wages and parental history on child labour and schooling in Egypt," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 0603, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
  9. Victoria Gunnarsson & Peter F. Orazem & Mario A. Sánchez, 2006. "Child Labor and School Achievement in Latin America," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 20(1), pages 31-54.
  10. Amin, Shahina & Quayes, Shakil & Rives, Janet M., 2006. "Market work and household work as deterrents to schooling in Bangladesh," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1271-1286, July.
  11. Sonia Bhalotra, and Zafiris Tzannatos, 2003. "Child labor : what have we learnt?," Social Protection Discussion Papers 27872, The World Bank.
  12. Levison, Deborah & Moe, Karine S. & Marie Knaul, Felicia, 2001. "Youth Education and Work in Mexico," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 167-188, January.
  13. Moehling, Carolyn M., 2005. ": Youth Employment and Household Decision Making in the Early Twentieth Century," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 65(02), pages 414-438, June.
  14. Gilbert,Christopher L. & Vines,David (ed.), 2006. "The World Bank," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521029018.
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Cited by:
  1. Bredl, Sebastian, 2012. "Child Quality and Child Quantity: Evidence from Bolivian Household Surveys," Annual Conference 2012 (Goettingen): New Approaches and Challenges for the Labor Market of the 21st Century 62065, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  2. Diego A. Vera Cossio, 2011. "Enrollment and child labor in Bolivia," Development Research Working Paper Series 11/2011, Institute for Advanced Development Studies.

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