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The environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for water pollution: Do regions matter?

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  • Lee, Chien-Chiang
  • Chiu, Yi-Bin
  • Sun, Chia-Hung

Abstract

This study revisits the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for water pollution by using a recent dynamic technique, which is the generalized method of moments (GMM) approach, for a board sample of 97 countries during the period 1980-2001. On a global scale, as we cannot obtain the EKC relationship between real income and biological oxygen demand (BOD) emissions, this paper further classifies these countries into four regional groups - Africa, Asia and Oceania, America, and Europe - to explore whether the different regions have different ECK relationships. The empirical results show evidence of the inverted U-shaped EKC relationships' existence in America and Europe, but not in Africa and Asia and Oceania. Thus, the regional difference of EKC for water pollution is supported. Furthermore, the estimated turning points are, approximately, US$13,956 and US$38,221 for America and Europe, respectively.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy.

Volume (Year): 38 (2010)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Pages: 12-23

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Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:38:y:2010:i:1:p:12-23

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol

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Keywords: Environmental Kuznets curve Biological oxygen demand emissions Generalized method of moments approach;

References

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Cited by:
  1. Jobert, Thomas & Karanfil, Fatih & Tykhonenko, Anna, 2013. "On the structure and form of the GDP–nuclear nexus: New perspectives and new findings," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1553-1561.
  2. Eriko Miyama & Shunsuke Managi, 2014. "Global environmental emissions estimate: application of multiple imputation," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 16(2), pages 115-135, April.
  3. Song, Ma-Lin & Zhang, Wei & Wang, Shu-Hong, 2013. "Inflection point of environmental Kuznets curve in Mainland China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 14-20.
  4. Bernard, Jean-Thomas & Gavin, Michael & Khalaf, Lynda & Voia, Marcel, 2011. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Tipping Points, Uncertainty and Weak Identification," Working Papers 119109, University of Laval, Center for Research on the Economics of the Environment, Agri-food, Transports and Energy (CREATE).

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