Understanding the accumulation of bank and thrift reserves during the U.S. financial crisis
AbstractThe level of aggregate excess reserves held by U.S. depository institutions increased significantly at the peak of the 2007–2009 financial crisis. Although the amount of aggregate reserves is determined almost entirely by the policy initiatives of the central bank that act on the asset side of its balance sheet, the motivations of individual banks in accumulating reserves differ and respond to the impact of changes in the economic environment on individual institutions. We undertake a systematic analysis of this massive accumulation of excess reserves using bank-level data for more than 7000 commercial banks and almost 1000 savings institutions during the U.S. financial crisis. We propose a testable stochastic model of reserves determination when interest is paid on reserves, which we estimate using bank-level data and censored regression methods. We find evidence primarily of a precautionary motive for reserves accumulation with some notable heterogeneity in the response of reserves accumulation to external and internal factors of the largest banks compared with smaller banks. We combine propensity score matching and a difference-in-differences approach to determine whether the beneficiaries of the Capital Purchase Program of the Troubled Asset Relief Program accumulated less cash, including reserves, than non-beneficiaries. Contrary to anecdotal evidence, we find that banks that participated in the program accumulated less cash, including reserves, than nonparticipants in the initial quarters after the capital injection.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control.
Volume (Year): 43 (2014)
Issue (Month): C ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jedc
Commercial banks; Financial crisis; Excess reserves; TARP;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
- E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
- G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Charles W. Calomiris & Berry Wilson, 2004. "Bank Capital and Portfolio Management: The 1930s "Capital Crunch" and the Scramble to Shed Risk," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(3), pages 421-456, July.
- Simon Kwan, 1998. "Bank charters vs thrift charters," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue apr24.
- Uesugi, Iichiro, 2002. "Measuring the Liquidity Effect: The Case of Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 289-316, September.
- Hanes, Christopher, 2006. "The Liquidity Trap and U.S. Interest Rates in the 1930s," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(1), pages 163-194, February.
- Hamilton, James D, 1997.
"Measuring the Liquidity Effect,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 87(1), pages 80-97, March.
- Frost, Peter A, 1971. "Banks' Demand for Excess Reserves," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(4), pages 805-25, July-Aug..
- Seung Jung Lee & Viktors Stebunovs, 2012. "Bank capital ratios and the structure of nonfinancial industries," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-53, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Black, Lamont K. & Hazelwood, Lieu N., 2013. "The effect of TARP on bank risk-taking," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 790-803.
- Ratti, Ronald A., 1979. "Stochastic reserve losses and bank credit expansion," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 283-294, April.
- Xavier Freixas & Jean-Charles Rochet, 1997. "Microeconomics of Banking," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262061937, December.
- Linda S. Goldberg & Christian Grisse, 2013.
"Time variation in asset price responses to macro announcements,"
626, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Linda S. Goldberg & Christian Grisse, 2013. "Time Variation in Asset Price Responses to Macro Announcements," NBER Working Papers 19523, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Linda S. Goldberg & Christian Grisse, 2013. "Time variation in asset price responses to macro announcements," Working Papers 2013-11, Swiss National Bank.
- Ben S. Bernanke, 1983.
"Non-Monetary Effects of the Financial Crisis in the Propagation of the Great Depression,"
NBER Working Papers
1054, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bernanke, Ben S, 1983. "Nonmonetary Effects of the Financial Crisis in Propagation of the Great Depression," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(3), pages 257-76, June.
- Adam Ashcraft & James Mcandrews & David Skeie, 2011.
"Precautionary Reserves and the Interbank Market,"
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Blackwell Publishing, vol. 43, pages 311-348, October.
- Todd Keister & James McAndrews, 2009.
"Why are banks holding so many excess reserves?,"
380, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Woodford, Michael, 2000.
"Monetary Policy in a World without Money,"
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 3(2), pages 229-60, July.
- Marvin Goodfriend, 2002. "Interest on reserves and monetary policy," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue May, pages 77-84.
- Baltensperger, Ernst & Milde, Hellmuth, 1976. "Predictability of Reserve Demand, Information Costs, and Portfolio Behavior of Commercial Banks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 31(3), pages 835-43, June.
- Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 1998.
"Propensity Score Matching Methods for Non-experimental Causal Studies,"
NBER Working Papers
6829, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 2002. "Propensity Score-Matching Methods For Nonexperimental Causal Studies," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(1), pages 151-161, February.
- Dehejia, R.H. & Wahba, S., 1998. "Propensity Score Matching Methods for Non-Experimental Causal Studies," Discussion Papers 1998_02, Columbia University, Department of Economics.
- Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 2002. "Propensity score matching methods for non-experimental causal studies," Discussion Papers 0102-14, Columbia University, Department of Economics.
- David Bowman & Etienne Gagnon & Mike Leahy, 2010. "Interest on excess reserves as a monetary policy instrument: the experience of foreign central banks," International Finance Discussion Papers 996, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Diamond, Douglas W & Dybvig, Philip H, 1983.
"Bank Runs, Deposit Insurance, and Liquidity,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(3), pages 401-19, June.
- R. Alton Gilbert & Kevin L. Kliesen & Andrew P. Meyer & David C. Wheelock, 2012. "Federal Reserve lending to troubled banks during the financial crisis, 2007-10," Working Papers 2012-006, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
- Craig P. Aubuchon & David C. Wheelock, 2010. "The geographic distribution and characteristics of U.S. bank failures, 2007-2010: do bank failures still reflect local economic conditions?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Sep, pages 395-415.
- Bernanke, Ben & Gertler, Mark, 1990.
"Financial Fragility and Economic Performance,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 105(1), pages 87-114, February.
- Cooper, J Phillip, 1971. "Stochastic Reserve Losses and Expansion of Bank Credit: Note," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(4), pages 741-45, September.
- Powell, James L., 1984. "Least absolute deviations estimation for the censored regression model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 303-325, July.
- Andreas Hornstein, 2010. "Monetary policy with interest on reserves," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue 2Q, pages 153-177.
- Kazuo Ogawa, 2007. "Why Commercial Banks Held Excess Reserves: The Japanese Experience of the Late 1990s," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(1), pages 241-257, 02.
- R. Alton Gilbert & Kevin L. Kliesen & Andrew P. Meyer & David C. Wheelock, 2012. "Federal Reserve lending to troubled banks during the financial crisis, 2007-2010," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue May, pages 221-242.
- Richard Blundell & Monica Costa Dias, 2000. "Evaluation methods for non-experimental data," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 21(4), pages 427-468, January.
- Silvio Contessi & Johanna L. Francis, 2011. "TARP beneficiaries and their lending patterns during the financial crisis," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 105-126.
- Milton Friedman & Anna J. Schwartz, 1963. "A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number frie63-1, October.
- Duchin, Ran & Sosyura, Denis, 2012. "The politics of government investment," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(1), pages 24-48.
- Todd Keister & Antoine Martin & James McAndrews, 2008. "Divorcing money from monetary policy," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Sep, pages 41-56.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.