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The geographic distribution and characteristics of U.S. bank failures, 2007-2010: do bank failures still reflect local economic conditions?

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Author Info

  • Craig P. Aubuchon
  • David C. Wheelock

Abstract

The financial crisis and recession that began in 2007 brought a sharp increase in the number of bank failures in the United States. This article investigates characteristics of banks that failed and regional patterns in bank failure rates during 2007-10. The article compares the recent experience with that of 1987-92, when the United States last experienced a high number of bank failures. As during the 1987-92 and prior episodes, bank failures during 2007-10 were concentrated in regions of the country that experienced the most serious distress in real estate markets and the largest declines in economic activity. Although most legal restrictions on branch banking were eliminated in the 1990s, the authors find that many banks continue to operate in a small number of markets and are vulnerable to localized economic shocks.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis in its journal Review.

Volume (Year): (2010)
Issue (Month): Sep ()
Pages: 395-415

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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlrv:y:2010:i:sep:p:395-415:n:v.92no.5

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Keywords: Bank failures;

References

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  1. Viral V. Acharya & Jean Imbs & Jason Sturgess, 2011. "Finance and Efficiency: Do Bank Branching Regulations Matter?," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 15(1), pages 135-172.
  2. Thomas A. Garrett & Gary A. Wagner & David C. Wheelock, 2005. "A spatial analysis of state banking regulation," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 84(4), pages 575-595, November.
  3. Freeman, Donald G., 2002. "Did state bank branching deregulation produce large growth effects?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 75(3), pages 383-389, May.
  4. Kenneth Spong, 2000. "Banking regulation : its purposes, implementation, and effects," Monograph, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, number 2000bria, December.
  5. David C. Wheelock, 2006. "What happens to banks when house prices fall? U.S. regional housing busts of the 1980s and 1990s," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Sep, pages 413-430.
  6. Alston Lee J. & Grove Wayne A. & Wheelock David C., 1994. "Why Do Banks Fail? Evidence from the 1920s," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 409-431, October.
  7. James B. Bullard & Christopher J. Neely & David C. Wheelock, 2009. "Systemic risk and the financial crisis: a primer," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Sep, pages 403-418.
  8. Favara, Giovanni & Imbs, Jean, 2010. "Credit Supply and the Price of Housing," CEPR Discussion Papers 8129, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. Thomas Garrett & Gary Wagner & David Wheelock, 2007. "Regional disparities in the spatial correlation of state income growth, 1977–2002," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 41(3), pages 601-618, September.
  10. Kenneth Spong & Richard J. Sullivan, 1999. "The outlook for the U.S. banking industry : what does the experience of the 1980s and 1990s tell us?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q IV, pages 65-83.
  11. David C. Wheelock & Paul Wilson, 2009. "Are U.S. banks too large?," Working Papers 2009-054, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  12. William Emmons & R. Gilbert & Timothy Yeager, 2004. "Reducing the Risk at Small Community Banks: Is it Size or Geographic Diversification that Matters?," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 259-281, April.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Maghyereh, Aktham I. & Awartani, Basel, 2014. "Bank distress prediction: Empirical evidence from the Gulf Cooperation Council countries," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 126-147.
  2. Imbierowicz, Björn & Rauch, Christian, 2014. "The relationship between liquidity risk and credit risk in banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 242-256.
  3. Mark Carlson & Hui Shan & Missaka Warusawitharana, 2011. "Capital ratios and bank lending: a matched bank approach," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2011-34, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  4. Silvio Contessi & Johanna L. Francis, 2011. "TARP beneficiaries and their lending patterns during the financial crisis," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 105-126.
  5. David C. Wheelock, 2011. "Have acquisitions of failed banks increased the concentration of U.S. banking markets?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue May, pages 155-168.
  6. Chang, Su-Hsin & Contessi, Silvio & Francis, Johanna L., 2014. "Understanding the accumulation of bank and thrift reserves during the U.S. financial crisis," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 78-106.

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