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The mechanics of a graceful exit: interest on reserves and segmentation in the federal funds market

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  • Morten L. Bech
  • Elizabeth Klee

Abstract

To combat the financial crisis that intensified in the fall of 2008, the Federal Reserve injected a substantial amount of liquidity into the banking system. The resulting increase in reserve balances exerted downward price pressure in the federal funds market, and the effective federal funds rate began to deviate from the target rate set by the Federal Open Market Committee. In response, the Federal Reserve revised its operational framework for implementing monetary policy and began to pay interest on reserve balances in an attempt to provide a floor for the federal funds rate. Nevertheless, following the policy change, the effective federal funds rate remained below not only the target but also the rate paid on reserve balances. We develop a model to explain this phenomenon and use data from the federal funds market to evaluate it empirically. In turn, we show how successful the Federal Reserve may be in raising the federal funds rate even in an environment with substantial reserve balances.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of New York in its series Staff Reports with number 416.

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Date of creation: 2009
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:416

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Keywords: Federal funds market (United States) ; Federal funds rate ; Bank reserves;

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  1. Leonardo Bartolini & Spence Hilton & Alessandro Prati, 2005. "Money market integration," Staff Reports 227, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  2. Bindseil, Ulrich & Camba-Mendez, Gonzalo & Hirsch, Astrid & Weller, Benedict, 2006. "Excess reserves and the implementation of monetary policy of the ECB," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 491-510, July.
  3. Aleksander Berentsen & Cyril Monnet, 2008. "Monetary policy in a channel system," Working Papers 08-7, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  4. repec:fip:fedgsq:y:2009:x:34 is not listed on IDEAS
  5. Papke, Leslie E & Wooldridge, Jeffrey M, 1996. "Econometric Methods for Fractional Response Variables with an Application to 401(K) Plan Participation Rates," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(6), pages 619-32, Nov.-Dec..
  6. Hamilton, James D, 1996. "The Daily Market for Federal Funds," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(1), pages 26-56, February.
  7. Huberto M. Ennis & Todd Keister, 2008. "Understanding monetary policy implementation," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Sum, pages 235-263.
  8. Ho, Thomas S Y & Saunders, Anthony, 1985. " A Micro Model of the Federal Funds Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(3), pages 977-88, July.
  9. Marvin Goodfriend, 2002. "Interest on reserves and monetary policy," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue May, pages 77-84.
  10. Joshua N. Feinman, 1993. "Reserve requirements: history, current practice, and potential reform," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Jun, pages 569-589.
  11. Todd Keister & Antoine Martin & James McAndrews, 2008. "Divorcing money from monetary policy," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Sep, pages 41-56.
  12. Furfine, Craig H, 2001. "Banks as Monitors of Other Banks: Evidence from the Overnight Federal Funds Market," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 74(1), pages 33-57, January.
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