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Bootstrapping Autoregressive Processes with Possible Unit Roots

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Author Info

  • Atsushi Inoue

    ()
    (Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, North Carolina State University, U.S.A.)

  • Lutz Kilian

    ()
    (Department of Economics, University of Michigan, U.S.A.)

Abstract

An important question in applied work is how to bootstrap autoregressive processes involving highly persistent time series of unknown order of integration. In this paper, we show that in many cases of interest in applied work the standard bootstrap algorithm for unrestricted autoregressions remains valid for processes with exact unit roots; no pre-tests are required, at least asymptotically, and applied researchers may proceed as in the stationary case. Specifically, we prove the first-order asymptotic validity of bootstrapping any linear combination of the slope parameters in autoregressive models with drift. We also establish the bootstrap validity for the marginal distribution of slope parameters and for most linear combinations of slope parameters in higher-order autoregressions without drift. The latter result is in sharp contrast to the well-known bootstrap invalidity result for the random walk without drift. A simulation study examines the finite-sample accuracy of the bootstrap approximation both for integrated and for near-integrated processes. We find that in many, but not all circumstances, the bootstrap distribution closely approximates the exact finite- sample distribution.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Econometric Society in its journal Econometrica.

Volume (Year): 70 (2002)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Pages: 377-391

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Handle: RePEc:ecm:emetrp:v:70:y:2002:i:1:p:377-391

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References

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  1. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-72, June.
  2. Jeganathan, P., 1991. "On the Asymptotic Behavior of Least-Squares Estimators in AR Time Series with Roots Near the Unit Circle," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(03), pages 269-306, September.
  3. Heimann, G√ľnter & Kreiss, Jens-Peter, 1996. "Bootstrapping general first order autoregression," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 87-98, September.
  4. Datta, Somnath, 1995. "Limit theory and bootstrap for explosive and partially explosive autoregression," Stochastic Processes and their Applications, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 285-304, June.
  5. West, Kenneth D, 1988. "Asymptotic Normality, When Regressors Have a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(6), pages 1397-1417, November.
  6. Hansen,B.E., 1998. "The grid bootstrap and the autoregressive model," Working papers 26, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  7. Faust, Jon, 1996. "Near Observational Equivalence and Theoretical size Problems with Unit Root Tests," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(04), pages 724-731, October.
  8. Lai, T. L. & Wei, C. Z., 1983. "Asymptotic properties of general autoregressive models and strong consistency of least-squares estimates of their parameters," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 1-23, March.
  9. Blough, Stephen R, 1992. "The Relationship between Power and Level for Generic Unit Root Tests in Finite Samples," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 7(3), pages 295-308, July-Sept.
  10. Graham Elliott, 1998. "On the Robustness of Cointegration Methods when Regressors Almost Have Unit Roots," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(1), pages 149-158, January.
  11. Zhang, Hu-Ming, 1992. "A log log law for unstable ARMA models with applications to time series analysis," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 173-204, February.
  12. Cochrane, John H., 1991. "A critique of the application of unit root tests," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 275-284, April.
  13. Diebold, F.X. & Kilian, L. & Nerlove, Marc, 2006. "Time Series Analysis," Working Papers 28556, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
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