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Impacto de los sindicatos en Colombia: ¿mayores salarios y más desigualdad?


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    Este trabajo analiza el impacto de los sindicatos en Colombia. Se busca responder a las siguientes preguntas: ¿existe un diferencial salarial entre empleados sindicalizados y no sindicalizados atribuible a los sindicatos?, ¿cuál es la magnitud del diferencial? y ¿qué parte de la desigualdad en los salarios de empleados es explicada por los sindicatos? Para determinar si existe un diferencial y la magnitud del mismo, se utiliza el método de evaluación de impacto, propensity score matching. Los resultados indican que existe un diferencial positivo, a favor de los trabajadores sindicalizados. El diferencial oscila entre el 3% y el 5% del salario mensual y entre el 15% y el 16% del salario por hora. Cuando se analiza el impacto sólo en el sector privado, el diferencial salarial se incrementa y oscila entre el 22% y el 27% del salario mensual y entre el 52% y 56% del salario por hora. Para estimar la fracción de la desigualdad salarial explicada por los sindicatos, se utiliza el método de descomposición de Fields. Los resultados indican que el 4% de la desigualdad en los salarios de empleados se explica por los sindicatos y, a diferencia de los hallazgos para otros países, los sindicatos en Colombia contribuyen a empeorar la distribución del ingreso. La muestra proviene de la Encuesta Nacional de Hogares realizada en diciembre de 2000.

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    Volume (Year): (2005)
    Issue (Month): ()

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    Handle: RePEc:col:000090:004561

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    1. Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra E, 1997. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(4), pages 605-54, October.
    2. Alex Bryson, 2002. "The union membership wage premium: an analysis using propensity score matching," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 4953, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    3. Adriana Cassoni & Gaston J. Labadie & Gabriela Fachola, 2002. "The Economic Effects of Unions in Latin America: Their Impact on Wages and the Economic Performance of Firms in Uruguay," Research Department Publications 3159, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    4. Gregory, Robert G. & Borland, Jeff, 1999. "Recent developments in public sector labor markets," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 53, pages 3573-3630 Elsevier.
    5. David Card, 1992. "The Effect of Unions on the Distribution of Wages: Redistribution or Relabelling?," NBER Working Papers 4195, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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