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The General Equilibrium Incidence of Environmental Mandates

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  • Don Fullerton
  • Garth Heutel

Abstract

Pollution regulations affect factor demands, relative returns, production, and output prices. In our model, one sector includes pollution as an input that can be a complement or substitute for labor or capital. For each type of mandate, we find conditions where more burden is on labor or on capital. Stricter regulation does not always place less burden on the better substitute for pollution. Also, restrictions on pollution per unit output create an "output-subsidy effect" on factor prices that can reverse the usual output and substitution effects. We find analogous effects for a restriction on pollution per unit capital. (JEL H23, Q53, Q58)

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by American Economic Association in its journal American Economic Journal: Economic Policy.

Volume (Year): 2 (2010)
Issue (Month): 3 (August)
Pages: 64-89

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Handle: RePEc:aea:aejpol:v:2:y:2010:i:3:p:64-89

Note: DOI: 10.1257/pol.2.3.64
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References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Ian Parry & Hilary Sigman & Margaret Walls & Roberton Williams, 2005. "The Incidence of Pollution Control Policies," Departmental Working Papers 200504, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
  2. Kverndokk, Snorre & Rose , Adam, 2008. "Equity and Justice in Global Warming Policy," Memorandum 21/2008, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
  3. Stephen P. Holland, 2009. "Taxes and Trading versus Intensity Standards: Second-Best Environmental Policies with Incomplete Regulation (Leakage) or Market Power," NBER Working Papers 15262, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Heutel, Garth, 2011. "How Should Environmental Policy Respond to Business Cycles? Optimal Policy under Persistent Productivity Shocks," Working Papers 11-8, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
  5. Blonz Joshua & Burtraw Dallas & Walls Margaret A, 2010. "Climate Policy's Uncertain Outcomes for Households: The Role of Complex Allocation Schemes in Cap-and-Trade," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 10(2), pages 1-35, November.
  6. Heutel, Garth & Kelly, David L., 2013. "Incidence and Environmental Effects of Distortionary Subsidies," Working Papers 13-5, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
  7. David Tobón Orozco & Carlos Andrés Vasco Correa, 2011. "Un modelo de equilibrio general con externalidades y capital natural," Libros del Grupo Microeconomía Aplicada, Universidad de Antioquia, Departamento de Economía, edition 1, number 01, December.
  8. Garth Heutel, 2011. "Online Appendix to "How Should Environmental Policy Respond to Business Cycles? Optimal Policy under Persistent Productivity Shocks"," Technical Appendices 10-62, Review of Economic Dynamics.
  9. Grainger, Corbett A., 2012. "The distributional effects of pollution regulations: Do renters fully pay for cleaner air?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(9-10), pages 840-852.
  10. Bovenberg, A.L. & Goulder, L.H. & Jacobson, M.R., 2006. "Costs of Alternative Environmental Policy Instruments in the Presence of Industry Compensation Requirements," Discussion Paper 2006-127, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  11. A. Lans Bovenberg & Lawrence H. Goulder & Mark R. Jacobsen, 2007. "Industry Compensation and the Costs of Alternative Environmental Policy Instruments," NBER Working Papers 13331, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Lemoine, Derek, 2013. "Escape from Third-Best: Rating Emissions for Intensity Standards," 2014 Allied Social Science Association (ASSA) Annual Meeting, January 3-5, 2014, Philadelphia, PA 161656, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  13. Bushnell, James & Chen, Yihsu, 2012. "Allocation and leakage in regional cap-and-trade markets for CO2," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 647-668.
  14. Don Fullerton, 2008. "Distributional Effects of Environmental and Energy Policy: An Introduction," NBER Working Papers 14241, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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