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Distributional Implications of Alternative U.S. Greenhouse Gas Control Measures

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  • Sebastian Rausch
  • Gilbert E. Metcalf
  • John M. Reilly
  • Sergey Paltsev

Abstract

We analyze the distributional and efficiency impacts of different allowance allocation schemes for a national cap and trade system using the USREP model, a new recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model of the U.S. economy. We consider allocation schemes applied to a comprehensive national cap and trade system that limits cumulative greenhouse gas emissions over the control period to 203 billion metric tons. The policy target approximates national goals identified in pending legislation. We find that the allocation schemes in all proposals are progressive over the lower half of the income distribution and proportional in the upper half of the income distribution. We also find that carbon pricing by itself (ignoring the return of carbon revenues through allowance allocations) is proportional to modestly progressive. This striking result follows from the dominance of the sources over uses side impacts of the policy and stands in sharp contrast to previous work that has focused only on the uses side. Lower income households derive a large fraction of income from government transfers and, reflecting the reality that these are generally indexed to inflation, we hold the transfers constant in real terms. As a result this source of income is unaffected by carbon pricing, while wage and capital income is affected.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 16053.

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Date of creation: Jun 2010
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Publication status: published as Sebastian Rausch & Gilbert E. Metcalf & John M. Reilly & Sergey Paltsev, 2010. "Distributional Implications of Alternative U.S. Greenhouse Gas Control Measures," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, Berkeley Electronic Press, vol. 10(2).
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:16053

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  1. Parry, Ian, 2003. "Are Emissions Permits Regressive?," Discussion Papers dp-03-21, Resources For the Future.
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Cited by:
  1. Don Fullerton & Garth Heutel & Gilbert Metcalf, 2011. "Does the Indexing of Government Transfers Make Carbon Pricing Progressive?," CESifo Working Paper Series 3315, CESifo Group Munich.
  2. Buscemi, Antonino & Yallwe, Alem Hagos, 2011. "It is time to re-think on environment, energy and economics (E3)," MPRA Paper 30998, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Chen, Y.-H. Henry & Timilsina, Govinda R., 2012. "Economic implications of reducing carbon emissions from energy use and industrial processes in Brazil," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6135, The World Bank.
  4. Richard Tol, 2012. "Leviathan carbon taxes in the short run," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 114(2), pages 409-415, September.
  5. Gilbert E. Metcalf & Aparna Mathur & Kevin A. Hassett, 2010. "Distributional Impacts in a Comprehensive Climate Policy Package," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0752, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
  6. Rausch, Sebastian & Mowers, Matthew, 2014. "Distributional and efficiency impacts of clean and renewable energy standards for electricity," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 556-585.
  7. Fullerton, Don & Monti, Holly, 2013. "Can pollution tax rebates protect low-wage earners?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 66(3), pages 539-553.
  8. Pollak, Melisa & Meyer, Bryn & Wilson, Elizabeth, 2011. "Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Lessons from state climate action plans," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 5429-5439, September.

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