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Output-Based Allocations of Emissions Permits: Efficiency and Distributional Effects in a General Equilibrium Setting with Taxes and Trade

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  • Fischer, Carolyn

    ()
    (Resources for the Future)

  • Fox, Alan

Abstract

Abstract The choice of mechanism for allocating tradable emissions permits has important efficiency and distributional effects when tax and trade distortions are considered. We present different rules for allocating carbon allowances within sectors (lump-sum grandfathering, output-based allocation [OBA], and auctioning) and among sectors (historical emissions and value-added shares). Using a partial equilibrium model, we explore how OBA mitigates price increases, limits incentives for conservation in favor of lowering energy intensity, and changes relative output prices among sectors. We then use a computable general equilibrium model from the Global Trade Analysis Project, modified to incorporate a labor/leisure choice, to compare overall mechanism performance. The output subsidies implicit in OBA mitigate tax interactions, which can lead to higher welfare than grandfathering. OBA with sectoral distributions based on value added generates effective subsidies similar to a broad-based tax reduction, performing nearly like auctioning with revenue recycling, which generates the highest welfare. OBA based on historical emissions supports the output of more polluting industries, which more effectively counteracts carbon leakage but is more costly in welfare terms. Industry production and trade impacts among sectors that are less energy intensive are also quite sensitive to allocation rules.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Resources For the Future in its series Discussion Papers with number dp-04-37.

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Date of creation: 14 Dec 2004
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Handle: RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-04-37

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Keywords: emissions trading; output-based allocation; tax interaction; carbon leakage;

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References

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  1. A. Lans Bovenberg & Lawrence H. Goulder, 2000. "Neutralizing the Adverse Industry Impacts of CO2 Abatement Policies: What Does it Cost?," NBER Working Papers 7654, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Bovenberg, A.L. & Ploeg, F. van der, 1992. "Environmental policy, public finance and the labour market in a second-best world," Discussion Paper 1992-43, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  3. Lawrence H. Goulder & Ian W. H. Parry & Roberton C. Williams III & Dallas Burtraw, 1998. "The Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Instruments for Environmental Protection in a Second-Best Setting," NBER Working Papers 6464, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Fischer, Carolyn & Hoffmann, Sandra & Yoshino , Yutaka, 2002. "Multilateral Trade Agreements and Market-Based Environmental Policies," Discussion Papers dp-02-28, Resources For the Future.
  5. Bovenberg, A.L. & Mooij, R.A. de, 1994. "Environmental levies and distortionary taxation," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-152985, Tilburg University.
  6. Fullerton, Don & Metcalf, Gilbert E., 2001. "Environmental controls, scarcity rents, and pre-existing distortions," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 249-267, May.
  7. Bovenberg, A.L. & Goulder, L.H., 1996. "Optimal environmental taxation in the presence of other taxes: General equilibrium analyses," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-73560, Tilburg University.
  8. Bovenberg, A Lans & de Mooij, Ruud A, 1997. "Environmental Levies and Distortionary Taxation: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(1), pages 252-53, March.
  9. Dissou, Yazid, 2005. "Cost-effectiveness of the performance standard system to reduce CO2 emissions in Canada: a general equilibrium analysis," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 187-207, October.
  10. Burtraw, Dallas & Palmer, Karen & Bharvirkar, Ranjit & Paul, Anthony, 2002. "The Effect on Asset Values of the Allocation of Carbon Dioxide Emission Allowances," Discussion Papers dp-02-15-, Resources For the Future.
  11. Fischer, Carolyn, 2001. "Rebating Environmental Policy Revenues: Output-Based Allocations and Tradable Performance Standards," Discussion Papers dp-01-22, Resources For the Future.
  12. Fischer, Carolyn, 2003. "Combining Rate-Based and Cap-and-Trade Emissions Policies," Discussion Papers dp-03-32, Resources For the Future.
  13. Lawrence H. Goulder & Ian W. H. Parry & Dallas Burtraw, 1996. "Revenue-Raising vs. Other Approaches to Environmental Protection: The Critical Significance of Pre-Existing Tax Distortions," NBER Working Papers 5641, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Parry Ian W. H., 1995. "Pollution Taxes and Revenue Recycling," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages S64-S77, November.
  15. Fischer, Carolyn & Bernard, Alain & Vielle, Marc, 2001. "Is There a Rationale for Rebating Environmental Levies?," Discussion Papers dp-01-31-, Resources For the Future.
  16. Carolyn Fischer & Richard D. Morgenstern, 2006. "Carbon Abatement Costs: Why the Wide Range of Estimates?," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 73-86.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Burtraw, Dallas & Palmer, Karen & Kahn, Daniel, 2005. "CO2 Allowance Allocation in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and the Effect on Electricity Investors," Discussion Papers dp-05-55, Resources For the Future.
  2. Paul, Anthony & Burtraw, Dallas & Palmer, Karen, 2008. "Compensation for Electricity Consumers Under a U.S. CO2 Emissions Cap," Discussion Papers dp-08-25, Resources For the Future.
  3. Don Fullerton & Garth Heutel, 2010. "The General Equilibrium Incidence of Environmental Mandates," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 2(3), pages 64-89, August.
  4. Philippe Quirion & Damien Demailly, 2008. "Changing the Allocation Rules in the EU ETS: Impact on Competitiveness and Economic Efficiency," Working Papers 2008.89, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  5. Sterner, Thomas & Muller, Adrian, 2006. "Output and Abatement Effects of Allocation Readjustment in Permit Trade," Discussion Papers dp-06-49, Resources For the Future.
  6. Palmer, Karen & Butraw, Dallas & Kahn, Danny, 2006. "Simple Rules for Targeting CO2 Allowance Allocations to Compensate Firms," Discussion Papers dp-06-28, Resources For the Future.
  7. Lozano, S. & Villa, G. & Brännlund, R., 2009. "Centralised reallocation of emission permits using DEA," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 193(3), pages 752-760, March.
  8. Lee, Cheng F. & Lin, Sue J. & Lewis, Charles, 2008. "Analysis of the impacts of combining carbon taxation and emission trading on different industry sectors," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 722-729, February.
  9. Kuik, Onno & Hofkes, Marjan, 2010. "Border adjustment for European emissions trading: Competitiveness and carbon leakage," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 1741-1748, April.
  10. Castillo, Anya & Linn, Joshua, 2011. "Incentives of carbon dioxide regulation for investment in low-carbon electricity technologies in Texas," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1831-1844, March.
  11. Bernard, Alain L. & Fischer, Carolyn & Fox, Alan K., 2007. "Is there a rationale for output-based rebating of environmental levies?," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 83-101, May.
  12. Chris Bataille & Benjamin Dachis & Nic Rivers, 2009. "Pricing Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Impact on Canada's Competitiveness," C.D. Howe Institute Commentary, C.D. Howe Institute, issue 280, February.
  13. Dallas Burtraw & Karen Palmer, 2008. "Compensation rules for climate policy in the electricity sector," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(4), pages 819-847.

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