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Qualifikation, Beschäftigung und technischer Fortschritt - Weitere empirische Evidenz mit den Daten des Mannheimer Innovationspanels

  • Blechinger, Doris
  • Pfeiffer, Friedhelm

Für die Bundesrepublik und insbesondere für Baden-Württemberg mit seiner hohen Industriedichte und dem großen Anteil innovativer Unternehmen ist das Verständnis der wirtschaftlichen Zusammenhänge zwischen Beschäftigung, Qualifikation und technischem Fortschritt von zentraler Bedeutung. Zur Quantifizierung der Beschäftigungseffekte des technischen Fortschritts wird für das Produzierende Gewerbe in Westdeutschland und in Baden-Württemberg das Wachstum der Arbeitsnachfrage zwischen 1992/94, 1993/95 und 1992/95 in kleinen und großen Unternehmen getrennt geschätzt. Prozeßinnovationen wirken tendenziell negativ, Produktinnovationen in der Regel positiv, wobei der Gesamteffekt von Prozeß- und Produktinnovationen vom Untersuchungszeitraum und von der Unternehmensgröße abhängig, tendenziell aber eher negativ ausgefallen ist. Die Qualifikationsstruktur der Beschäftigten in innovativen und nicht-innovativen Unternehmen wird mit einer Rangkorrelationsanalyse untersucht. Technischer Fortschritt setzt geringqualifizierte Arbeit frei. In innovativen Unternehmen ist die Höherqualifizierung der Arbeitskräfte stärker ausgeprägt. ; The paper analyses the relationship between technological change, employment and its skill structure in an empirical context using survey data from the West German manufacturing sector between 1993 and 1996 (Mannheim Innovation Panel). The results are compared to those of Baden- Württemberg, the federal state with the highest share of employment in German manufacturing. The most important factors determining employment growth are sales growth and growth of labour costs. Process innovations have a negative effect on labour demand. Product innovations show a positive impact on labour demand. The rank correlation analysis suggests that upskilling is higher in innovative firms.

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Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 98-04.

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Date of creation: 1998
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:9804
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  1. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
  2. Blechinger, Doris & Kleinknecht, Alfred & Licht, Georg & Pfeiffer, Friedhelm, 1998. "The impact of innovation on employment in Europe: An analysis using CIS data," ZEW Dokumentationen 98-02, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  3. Van Reenen, John, 1997. "Employment and Technological Innovation: Evidence from U.K. Manufacturing Firms," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(2), pages 255-84, April.
  4. Licht, Georg & Harhoff, Dietmar, 1993. "Das Mannheimer Innovationspanel," ZEW Discussion Papers 93-21, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  5. Brouwer, Erik & Kleinknecht, Alfred & Reijnen, Jeroen O N, 1993. "Employment Growth and Innovation at the Firm Level," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 3(2), pages 153-59, May.
  6. Addison, John T & Schnabel, Claus & Wagner, Joachim, 1996. "German Works Councils, Profits, and Innovation," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(4), pages 555-82.
  7. Falk, Martin & Koebel, Bertrand M., 1997. "The Demand of Heterogeneous Labour in Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 97-28, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
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