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Gender gap in voting: Evidence from actual ballots


  • Köppl-Turyna, Monika


This short article looks at the development of an electoral gender gap over time, using, for the first time, actual ballot data collected in the Austrian state of Vienna. Vienna recorded female and male ballots separately in the years from 1954 to 1991. Firstly, using this unique design, we conclude that the traditional gender gap (males more left-leaning) existed up to 1969 and then changed into the modern gender gap (females more left-leaning), from that date. These results confirm the considerable literature based on survey data. Secondly, we can confirm surveybased findings that male voters support more extreme positions than female voters. Thirdly, and contrary to expectations, we do not observe large systematic differences in turnout.

Suggested Citation

  • Köppl-Turyna, Monika, 2020. "Gender gap in voting: Evidence from actual ballots," Working Papers 18, Agenda Austria.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:agawps:18

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Box-Steffensmeier, Janet M. & De Boef, Suzanna & Lin, Tse-Min, 2004. "The Dynamics of the Partisan Gender Gap," American Political Science Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 98(3), pages 515-528, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bianca Rochelle Parry & Errolyn Gordon, 2021. "The shadow pandemic: Inequitable gendered impacts of COVID‐19 in South Africa," Gender, Work and Organization, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(2), pages 795-806, March.
    2. Hirschman, Daniel, 2021. ""Controlling for what?" Folk economics, legal consciousness and the gender wage gap in the United States," SocArXiv j8pra, Center for Open Science.
    3. Andrea Dominguez & Rocío Diez, 2022. "Gender Barriers in Academia: Perceptions of Inequality in Professional Development among Female Academics in the Faculty of Education, University of Alicante, Spain," Societies, MDPI, vol. 12(6), pages 1-12, November.
    4. Harris-Fry, Helen & Lamson, Lauren & Roett, Katelyn & Katz, Elizabeth, 2022. "Reducing gender bias in household consumption data: Implications for food fortification policy," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 110(C).

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    More about this item


    electoral gender gap; ballots; Vienna; turnover;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D72 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Political Processes: Rent-seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior

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