IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Biased Technical Change and the Malmquist Productivity Index


  • R. Fare
  • E. Grifell-Tatje
  • S. Grosskopf
  • C.A.K. Lovell


The Malmquist productivity index has many attractive features. One is that it decomposes into a technical efficiency change index and a technical change index. Under constant returns to scale, its technical efficiency change index has been decomposed into a "pure" technical efficiency change index, a scale efficiency change index, and a congestion change index. Here we maintain the same assumption, and we decompose its technical change index into a magnitude index and a bias index. We then decompose the bias index into an output bias index and an input bias index, and we state conditions under which either bias index makes no contribution to productivity change.

Suggested Citation

  • R. Fare & E. Grifell-Tatje & S. Grosskopf & C.A.K. Lovell, 1995. "Biased Technical Change and the Malmquist Productivity Index," Microeconomics 9508002, EconWPA, revised 22 Aug 1995.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpmi:9508002
    Note: Type of Document - Word for Windows (v.6?); prepared on IBM compatible; to print on HP LaserJet; pages: 20; figures: none. Browse all of our working papers at

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Berg, Sigbjorn Atle & Forsund, Finn R & Jansen, Eilev S, 1992. " Malmquist Indices of Productivity Growth during the Deregulation of Norwegian Banking, 1980-89," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 94(0), pages 211-228, Supplemen.
    2. Balk, Bert M, 1993. "Malmquist Productivity Indexes and Fisher Ideal Indexes: Comment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 103(418), pages 680-682, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Dias, Weeratilake, 1998. "Productivity And Efficiency Of Agricultural And Non Agricultural Banks In The United States: Dea Approach," 1998 Annual meeting, August 2-5, Salt Lake City, UT 20845, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    2. Jhang, Kwang-soo, 1996. "Productivity performance in Korean manufacturing industries," ISU General Staff Papers 1996010108000017622, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    3. Joaquin Maudos & Jose Manuel Pastor & Lorenzo Serrano, 2003. "Human capital in OECD countries: Technical change, efficiency and productivity," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(4), pages 419-435.
    4. Shunsuke Managi & David Karemera, 2004. "Input and output biased technological change in US agriculture," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(5), pages 283-286.

    More about this item


    productivity; technical change; Malmquist index;

    JEL classification:

    • G2 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services
    • O3 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpmi:9508002. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.