State Dependent Adjustment in an Economy with Seasonal Fluctuations
Much research on the dynamics of the aggregate economy concerns the adjustment policy of the microeconomic units. This paper investigates the optimal adjustment policy when there are seasonal fluctuations and fixed adjustment costs. The optimal policy in this case can be described in terms of three parameters: the thresholds where adjustment occurs during the high season; the thresholds where adjustment occurs during the low season; and the deviation at the end of each season. Since the optimal level of the control variable (e.g., price, employment, stock of capital) decreases during the low season and increases during the high season, the optimal policy is such that at the end of the high season the control variable is below its optimal level and at the end of the low season the control variable is above its optimal level. As a result, the observed seasonal fluctuations are smaller than the underlying seasonal fluctuations. This damping effect depends on the trend of the process. When the trend is higher in absolute value, the deviation at the beginning of each season decreases and hence the observed seasonal fluctuations increase. For example, if the control variable is the price the firm charges, higher inflation increases the seasonal fluctuations. I test this prediction for the case of price seasonality using price data from Israel for the period 1983-1994. The data provide strong support to the model prediction. Price seasonality increases with the rate of inflation. This is the case especially for goods with market power and significant adjustment costs.
|Date of creation:||25 Sep 1996|
|Date of revision:|
|Note:||Type of Document - WordPerfect; prepared on IBM PC ; to print on HP; pages: 23 ; figures: included .|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://econwpa.repec.org|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Andrew S. Caplin & Daniel F. Spulber, 1987.
"Menu Costs and the Neutrality of Money,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 102(4), pages 703-725.
- Ricardo J. Caballero, 1991.
"A Fallacy of Composition,"
NBER Working Papers
3735, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- J. Joseph Beaulieu & Jeffrey K. MacKie-Mason & Jeffrey A. Miron, 1992. "Why Do Countries and Industries with Large Seasonal Cycles Also Have Large Business Cycles?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 621-656.
- N. Gregory Mankiw, 1985. "Small Menu Costs and Large Business Cycles: A Macroeconomic Model of Monopoly," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 100(2), pages 529-538.
- Sargent, Thomas J, 1978.
"Estimation of Dynamic Labor Demand Schedules under Rational Expectations,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(6), pages 1009-44, December.
- Thomas J. Sargent, 1978. "Estimation of dynamic labor demand schedules under rational expectations," Staff Report 27, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Danziger, Leif, 1988. "Costs of Price Adjustment and the Welfare Economics of Inflation and Disinflation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(4), pages 633-46, September.
- Eytan Sheshinski & Yoram Weiss, 1977. "Inflation and Costs of Price Adjustment," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 44(2), pages 287-303.
- Stanley Fischer, 1981. "Relative Shocks, Relative Price Variability, and Inflation," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 12(2), pages 381-442.
- Van Hoomissen, Theresa, 1988. "Price Dispersion and Inflation: Evidence from Israel," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(6), pages 1303-14, December.
- George A. Akerlof & Janet L. Yellen, 1985. "A Near-Rational Model of the Business Cycle, with Wage and Price Inertia," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 100(Supplemen), pages 823-838.
- Samuel Bentolila & Giuseppe Bertola, 1990. "Firing Costs and Labour Demand: How Bad is Eurosclerosis?," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 57(3), pages 381-402.
- Parks, Richard W, 1978. "Inflation and Relative Price Variability," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(1), pages 79-95, February.
- Taylor, John B., 1981. "On the relation between the variability of inflation and the average inflation rate," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 57-85, January.
- Giuseppe Bertola & Ricardo J. Caballero, 1990. "Kinked Adjustment Costs and Aggregate Dynamics," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1990, Volume 5, pages 237-296 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Andrew Caplin & John Leahy, 1991. "State-Dependent Pricing and the Dynamics of Money and Output," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(3), pages 683-708.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpma:9609006. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.