China's economic reforms : pointers for other economies in transition?
China's two main economic problems before reform were low incentives to workers and the misallocation of resources among sectors. These problems were theresult of a development strategy oriented toward heavy industry. By improving material incentives, China's reforms created a flow of new resources and allowed them to be allocated to sectors suppressed under pre-reform strategies. The onset of reform in China was not allowed to disrupt production from existing resources. Instead, the newly created resources were permitted to accrue and to flow into the more productive, often light industrial sectors, thus stimulating continuous growth of the national economy during reform. Low incentives and the suppression of nonpriority sectors are common features of the legacy of economies in transition from central planning that based their development on the rapid growth of heavy industry. China's approach may be of interest to them. Among lessons China learned are that: (a) Autonomy must be granted to micromanagement units and preserved to improve the incentive structure and create a new flow of resources. (b) While maintaining essential minimum levels of production in the pre-reform priority sectors, autonomous enterprises must be permitted and encouraged to allocate new incremental resource flows to the previously suppressed sectors. (c) In parallel, the distorted policy environment and planned-allocation system must be progressively reformed to bring them into line with the new system of incentives and modus operandi of autonomous enterprises.
|Date of creation:||30 Jun 1994|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/Email:
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Justin Yifu Lin, 1989. "An Economic Theory of Institutional Change: Induced and Imposed Change," Cato Journal, Cato Journal, Cato Institute, vol. 9(1), pages 1-33, Spring/Su.
- Gordon, Roger H & Li, Wei, 1991. "Chinese Enterprise Behavior under the Reforms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(2), pages 202-06, May.
- Mathias Dewatripont & Gérard Roland, 1992.
"The virtues of gradualism and legitimacy in the transition to a market economy,"
ULB Institutional Repository
2013/9587, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Dewatripont, M & Roland, G, 1992. "The Virtues of Gradualism and Legitimacy in the Transition to a Market Economy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 102(411), pages 291-300, March.
- Dewatripont, Mathias & Roland, Gérard, 1991. "The Virtues of Gradualism and Legitimacy in the Transition to a Market Economy," CEPR Discussion Papers 538, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Barreto, Humberto & Whitesell, Robert S, 1992.
" Estimation of Output Loss from Allocative Inefficiency: A Comparison of the Soviet Union and the U.S,"
Economic Change and Restructuring,
Springer, vol. 25(3), pages 219-36.
- Whitesell, R. & Barreto, H., 1988. "Estimation Of Output Loss From Allocative Inefficiency: Comparison Of The Soviet Union And The U.S," Center for Development Economics 109, Department of Economics, Williams College.
- David Dollar, 1988.
"Economic Reform and Allocative Efficiency in China's State-Owned Industry,"
UCLA Economics Working Papers
489, UCLA Department of Economics.
- Dollar, David, 1990. "Economic Reform and Allocative Efficiency in China's State-Owned Industry," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 39(1), pages 89-105, October.
- Lin, Justin Yifu, 1992. "Rural Reforms and Agricultural Growth in China," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(1), pages 34-51, March.
- Woo, W.T., 1993.
"The Art of Reforming Centrally-Planned Economies: Comparing China, Poland and Russia,"
93-09, California Davis - Institute of Governmental Affairs.
- Woo Wing Thye, 1994. "The Art of Reforming Centrally Planned Economies: Comparing China, Poland, and Russia," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 276-308, June.
- Shang-Jin Wei, 1997. "Gradualism versus Big Bang: Speed and Sustainability of Reforms," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 30(4), pages 1234-47, November.
- Jefferson, Gary H & Rawski, Thomas G & Yuxin, Zheng, 1992. "Growth, Efficiency, and Convergence in China's State and Collective Industry," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(2), pages 239-66, January.
- Groves, Theodore, et al, 1994. "Autonomy and Incentives in Chinese State Enterprises," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(1), pages 183-209, February.
- Murphy, Kevin M & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1992. "The Transition to a Market Economy: Pitfalls of Partial Reform," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 107(3), pages 889-906, August.
- Sachs, J.D. & Woo, W.T., 1994. "Structural Factors in the Economic Reforms of China, Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union," Papers 94-01, California Davis - Institute of Governmental Affairs.
- Murrell Peter & Wang Yijiang, 1993. "When Privatization Should Be Delayed: The Effect of Communist Legacies on Organizational and Institutional Reforms," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 385-406, June.
- Newbery, David M., 1993. "Transformation in mature versus emerging economies: Why has Hungary been less successful than China?," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 89-116.
- Josef C. Brada, 1991. "The Economic Transition of Czechoslovakia from Plan to Market," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 5(4), pages 171-177, Fall.
- Desai, Padma & Martin, Ricardo, 1983. "Efficiency Loss from Resource Misallocation in Soviet Industry," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 98(3), pages 441-56, August.
- Chen, Kang & Jefferson, Gary H. & Singh, Inderjit, 1992. "Lessons from China's economic reform," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 201-225, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1310. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.