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Characteristics and performance of settlement programs : a review


  • Kinsey, Bill H.
  • Binswanger, Hans P.


The studies and cases reviewed by the authors suggest that settlement programs are too often designed on the assumption that all settlers will or can succeed. This had led to too much centralized administration and rigid designs, rather than reliance on decentralized approaches, flexibility in implementation, support for spontaneous settlement, and reliance on the settler's own investment capacity. Collective forms of crop production have not worked. Cropland is best allocated to individual families whose land rights must be clearly defined as ownership or long-term leases. Farm sizes must be flexibly adjusted to skills, the availability of family labor, and the families'capital ownership. Settlers should therefore be allowed to sell or rent the land to other beneficiaries. If poor settlers are to benefit or succeed, settlement cannot be based on credit finance but must include grants. Paternalistic constraints on the choice of crops or technologies, marketing, or participation in the labor force have usually not been enforceable or have had negative effects.

Suggested Citation

  • Kinsey, Bill H. & Binswanger, Hans P., 1993. "Characteristics and performance of settlement programs : a review," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1207, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1207

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    2. Derek Byerlee & Klaus Deininger, 2013. "The Rise of Large Farms in Land-Abundant Countries: Do They Have a Future?," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: Stein T. Holden & Keijiro Otsuka & Klaus Deininger (ed.), Land Tenure Reform in Asia and Africa, chapter 14, pages 333-353, Palgrave Macmillan.
    3. Kirsten, Johann F. & van Zyl, Johan, 1998. "Defining Small-Scale Farmers In The South African Context," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 37(4), pages 1-12, December.
    4. Rincón Barajas, Jorge A., 2023. "Productivity dynamics and state support after a land titling program: Evidence from Colombia," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 131(C).
    5. Hans P. Binswanger-Mkhize & Camille Bourguignon & Rogier van den Brink, 2009. "Agricultural Land Redistribution : Toward Greater Consensus," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 2653, December.
    6. R. Albert Berry, 1998. "Agrarian Reform, Land Distribution, and Small-Farm Policy as Preventive of Humanitarian Emergencies," Working Papers berry-98-03, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
    7. Liu, Yanyan & Yamauchi, Futoshi, 2014. "Population density, migration, and the returns to human capital and land: Insights from Indonesia," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 182-193.
    8. van Zyl, Johan, 1994. "Farm Size Efficiency, Food Security And Market Assisted Rural Land Reform In South Africa," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 33(4), December.
    9. Seitz,William Hutchins, 2023. "Предпочтения В Отношении Дискриминации Женщин В Оплате Труда," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1548, The World Bank.
    10. Samuel Bazzi & Arya Gaduh & Alexander D. Rothenberg & Maisy Wong, 2016. "Skill Transferability, Migration, and Development: Evidence from Population Resettlement in Indonesia," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 106(9), pages 2658-2698, September.
    11. Christine Valente, 2011. "Household Returns to Land Transfers in South Africa: A Q-squared Analysis," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(2), pages 354-376.
    12. Riithi, Alexander Njuguna & Irungu, Patrick & Munei , Kimpei, 2015. "Determinants Of Choice Of Alternative Livelihood Diversification Strategies In Solio Resettlement Scheme, Kenya," Dissertations and Theses 269714, University of Nairobi, Department of Agricultural Economics.
    13. Ngepah, Nicholas, 2010. "Inequality and agricultural production: Evidence from aggregate agriculture and sugarcane farms in South Africa," African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, African Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 5(2), pages 1-19, December.
    14. Eicher, Carl K., 1994. "Zimbabwe's Green Revolution: Preconditions for Replication in Africa," Staff Paper Series 201176, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
    15. Klaus W. Deininger & Songqing Jin & Vandana Yadav, 2011. "Long-term Effects of Land Reform on Human Capital Accumulation: Evidence from West Bengal," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2011-082, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    16. Deininger, Klaus W. & Jin, Songqing & Yadav, Vandana, 2008. "Impact of Land Reform on Productivity, Land Value and Human Capital Investment: Household Level Evidence from West Bengal," 2008 Annual Meeting, July 27-29, 2008, Orlando, Florida 6277, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    17. Riithi, A.N. & Maina, J.M., 2015. "Determinants of Participation in the Nonfarm Sector in a Conflict-Based Resettlement Scheme," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 212694, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    18. Jayne, T.S. & Chamberlin, Jordan & Headey, Derek D., 2014. "Land pressures, the evolution of farming systems, and development strategies in Africa: A synthesis," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 1-17.


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