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The Structure and Evolution of Buyer-Supplier Networks

Author

Listed:
  • Takayuki Mizuno

    (National Institute of Informatics, Graduate School of Economics, University of Tokyo, The Canon Institute for Global Studies)

  • Wataru Souma

    (College of Science and Technology, Nihon University)

  • Tsutomu Watanabe

    (Graduate School of Economics, University of Tokyo, The Canon Institute for Global Studies)

Abstract

In this paper, we investigate the structure and evolution of customer-supplier networks in Japan using a unique dataset that contains information on customer and supplier linkages for more than 500,000 incorporated non-financial firms for the five years from 2008 to 2012. We find, first, that the number of customer links is unequal across firms; the customer link distribution has a power-law tail with an exponent of unity (i.e., it follows Zipf’s law). We interpret this as implying that competition among firms to acquire new customers yields winners with a large number of customers, as well as losers with fewer customers. We also show that the shortest path length for any pair of firms is, on average, 4.3 links. Second, we find that link switching is relatively rare. Our estimates indicate that the survival rate per year for customer links is 92 percent and for supplier links 93 percent. Third and finally, we find that firm growth rates tend to be more highly correlated the closer two firms are to each other in a customer-supplier network (i.e., the smaller is the shortest path length for the two firms). This suggests that a non-negligible portion of fluctuations in firm growth stems from the propagation of microeconomic shocks – shocks affecting only a particular firm – through customer-supplier chains.

Suggested Citation

  • Takayuki Mizuno & Wataru Souma & Tsutomu Watanabe, 2014. "The Structure and Evolution of Buyer-Supplier Networks," UTokyo Price Project Working Paper Series 018, University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:upd:utppwp:018
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    File URL: http://www.price.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp/img/researchdata/pdf/p_wp035.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hans-Theo Normann & Bradley J. Ruffle & Christopher M. Snyder, 2007. "Do buyer-size discounts depend on the curvature of the surplus function? Experimental tests of bargaining models," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 38(3), pages 747-767, September.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    buyer-supplier networks; supply chains; input-output analysis; power-law distributions; firm dynamics;

    JEL classification:

    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • L14 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation
    • C67 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Input-Output Models

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