IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Determinants of Regional Disparities in Indonesia : Lessons from Provincial Level


  • Muhammad Refqi

    (Master of Applied Economics, Padjadjaran University)

  • Achmad Kemal Hidayat

    (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University)


The phenomenon of regional income inequality, which is experienced by both developed and developing countries, might also occur at the district level. This study measured the conditions of difference at both the national and provincial level. Measured using the Theil Inequality Index, income inequality was narrowed on the national scale and varied at the provincial scale. Furthermore, panel data regression was used to find the explanatory factors of regional income inequality using data from 2010 to 2017. According to the result, general allocation funds, road and education might be significant factors in decreasing income inequality, while GDP per capita, DBH (Revenue Sharing Funds), and spatial planning policies might produce the opposite impact. There is considerable influence of natural resources on inequality, and fiscal transfers were not able to quickly overcome these conditions. The government was advised to be more considerate about the importance of underdeveloped areas through fiscal transfer reformulation, potential economic maximization, and equitable development with proper spatial planning to promote income convergence and equalize welfare.

Suggested Citation

  • Muhammad Refqi & Achmad Kemal Hidayat, 2019. "Determinants of Regional Disparities in Indonesia : Lessons from Provincial Level," Working Papers in Economics and Development Studies (WoPEDS) 201906, Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University, revised Dec 2019.
  • Handle: RePEc:unp:wpaper:201906

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: First version, 2019
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Takahiro Akita, 2002. "Income Inequality in Indonesia," Working Papers EMS_2002_02, Research Institute, International University of Japan.
    2. A. B. Atkinson, 2003. "Income Inequality in OECD Countries: Data and Explanations," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo Group, vol. 49(4), pages 479-513.
    3. Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & Scott W. Hegerty & Harvey Wilmeth, 2008. "Short-run and long-run determinants of income inequality: evidence from 16 countries," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 30(3), pages 463-484, April.
    4. Takahiro Akita, 2003. "Decomposing regional income inequality in China and Indonesia using two-stage nested Theil decomposition method," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 37(1), pages 55-77, February.
    5. Akita, Takahiro & Kawamura, Kazumi, 2002. "Regional income inequality in China and Indonesia: A comparative analysis," ERSA conference papers ersa02p432, European Regional Science Association.
    6. Bourguignon, Francois, 1979. "Decomposable Income Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(4), pages 901-920, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Takahiro Akita, 2002. "Regional Income Inequality In Indonesia And The Initial Impact Of The Economic Crisis," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(2), pages 201-222.
    2. Takahiro Akita & Sachiko Miyata, 2018. "Spatial Inequalities in Indonesia, 1996–2010: A Hierarchical Decomposition Analysis," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 138(3), pages 829-852, August.
    3. Mitsuhiko Kataoka, 2022. "Cyclical shocks and spatial association of Indonesia's district‐level per capita income," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 36(3), pages 261-287, September.
    4. Miguel A. Márquez & Elena Lasarte & Marcelo Lufin, 2019. "The Role of Neighborhood in the Analysis of Spatial Economic Inequality," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 141(1), pages 245-273, January.
    5. Stephen P. Jenkins & John Micklewright, 2007. "New Directions in the Analysis of Inequality and Poverty," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 700, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    6. Kam Ki Tang & Dennis Petrie, 2009. "Non-Hierarchical Bivariate Decomposition of Theil Indexes," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(2), pages 918-927.
    7. Hiroshi Sakamoto, 2013. "Intra-regional Disparity and Municipal Merger: Case Study in Fukuoka Prefecture," ERSA conference papers ersa13p110, European Regional Science Association.
    8. Takahiro Akita & Awaludin Aji Riadi & Ali Rizal, 2021. "Fiscal disparities in Indonesia in the decentralization era: Does general allocation fund equalize fiscal revenues?," Regional Science Policy & Practice, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(6), pages 1842-1865, December.
    9. Takahiro Akita & Sachiko Miyata, 2020. "Urban and Rural Dimensions of the Role of Education in Inequality: A Comparative Analysis between Indonesia, Myanmar, and the Philippines," Working Papers EMS_2020_04, Research Institute, International University of Japan.
    10. Branko Milanovic, 2004. "Half a World: Regional inequality in five great federations," Urban/Regional 0404002, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Guogang Wang & Mingli Wang & Jimin Wang & Chun Yang, 2015. "Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Rural Economic Development in Eastern Coastal China," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 7(2), pages 1-16, January.
    12. Irwan Trinugroho & Agusman Agusman & Mochammad Doddy Ariefianto & Darsono Darsono & Amine Tarazi, 2015. "Determinants of cross regional disparity in financial deepening: Evidence from Indonesian provinces," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 35(2), pages 896-910.
    13. Wu, Dengsheng & Yuan, Lili & Li, Ruoyun & Li, Jianping, 2018. "Decomposing inequality in research funding by university-institute sub-group: A three-stage nested Theil index," Journal of Informetrics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 1312-1326.
    14. Takahiro Akita, 2017. "Educational Expansion and the Role of Education in Expenditure Inequality in Indonesia Since the 1997 Financial Crisis," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 130(3), pages 1165-1186, February.
    15. Aekapol Chongvilaivan & Jungsuk Kim, 2016. "Individual Income Inequality and Its Drivers in Indonesia: A Theil Decomposition Reassessment," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 126(1), pages 79-98, March.
    16. Szczepaniak, Małgorzata & Geise, Andrzej & Bariyah, Nurul, 2022. "Impact of institutional determinants on income inequalities in Indonesia during the Era Reformasi," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(C).
    17. Takahiro Akita & Sachiko Miyata, 2013. "The roles of location and education in the distribution of economic well-being in Indonesia: hierarchical and non-hierarchical inequality decomposition analyses," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, vol. 6(3), pages 137-150, November.
    18. Takahiro Akita & Sachiko Miyata, 2008. "Urbanization, educational expansion, and expenditure inequality in Indonesia in 1996, 1999, and 2002," Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 147-167.
    19. Diao, Xinshen & Fan, Shenggen & Yu, Bingxin & Kanyarukiga, Sam, 2007. "Agricultural growth and investment options for poverty reduction in Rwanda," IFPRI discussion papers 689, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    20. Armida Alisjahbana & Takahiro Akita, 2020. "Economic Tertiarization and Regional Income Inequality in a Decentralized Indonesia: A Bi-dimensional Inequality Decomposition Analysis," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 151(1), pages 51-80, August.

    More about this item


    regional disparity; Theil inequality index; Indonesia;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • H3 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:unp:wpaper:201906. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Arief Anshory Yusuf (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.