Incubators as Tools for Entrepreneurship Promotion in Developing Countries
This paper reviews the literature on incubators in developed and developing countries. We show that the concept of incubators has evolved in time according to market and firm needs. Contemporary successful incubators are profit-oriented, provide a wide range of services, focus more on intangible business services, and employ qualified managers and support staff. By drawing lessons from country experiences we assess the appropriateness of incubators as a tool for entrepreneurship promotion in developing countries. The main weaknesses of incubators in developing countries are: (i) focus on tangible services rather than intangible services, (ii) dependence on government, (iii) lack of management and qualified personnel, (iv) lack of incubator planning and creativeness in solving problems. Most successful incubators display a creative and innovative character in approaching problems of tenant companies. This is of course correlated with the quality of the incubator management staff. Moreover, incubators reflect the institutional set-up, creativity, and policy innovativeness in a society. Therefore policy on incubators should be well-integrated with other policies for entrepreneurship promotion and economic development, such as education and institutional deregulation.
|Date of creation:||2009|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht|
Phone: (31) (0)43 3883875
Fax: (31) (0)43 3216518
Web page: http://www.merit.unu.edu/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Marcel Fafchamps, 2004. "Market Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa: Theory and Evidence," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262062364, July.
- John McMillan & Christopher Woodruff, 1999.
"Interfirm Relationships and Informal Credit in Vietnam,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 114(4), pages 1285-1320.
- McMillan, John & Woodruff, Christopher, 1998. "Inter-Firm Relationships and Informal Credit in Vietnam," CEPR Discussion Papers 2036, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- John McMillan & Christopher Woodruff, 1998. "Interfirm Relationships and Informal Credit in Vietnam," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 132, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Rufin Baghana & Pierre Mohnen, 2009. "Effectiveness of R&D tax incentives in small and large enterprises in Québec," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 91-107, June.
- Baghana, Rufin & Mohnen, Pierre, 2009. "Effectiveness of R&D Tax Incentives in Small and Large Enterprises in Quebec," MERIT Working Papers 001, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
- Rufin Baghana & Pierre Mohnen, 2009. "Effectiveness of R&D Tax Incentives in Small and Large Enterprises in Québec," CIRANO Working Papers 2009s-01, CIRANO.
- Bollingtoft, Anne & Ulhoi, John P., 2005. "The networked business incubator--leveraging entrepreneurial agency?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 265-290, March.
- Alain Thierstein & Beate Willhelm, 2001. "Incubator, technology, and innovation centres in Switzerland: features and policy implications," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(4), pages 315-331, October.
- Thierstein, Alain & Wilhelm, Beate, 1999. "Incubator, technology and innovation centers in Switzerland; features and policy implications," ERSA conference papers ersa99pa385, European Regional Science Association.
- Lundin, Nannan & Sjöholm, Fredrik & Qian , Jinchang, 2006. "The Role Of Small Firms In China’S Technology Development," EIJS Working Paper Series 227, The European Institute of Japanese Studies.
- Lundin, Nannan & Sjöholm, Fredrik & Ping, He & Qian, Jinchang, 2007. "The Role of Small Firms in China's Technology Development," Working Paper Series 695, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Doi, Noriyuki & Cowling, Marc, 1998. "The Evolution of Firm Size and Employment Share Distribution in Japanese and UK Manufacturing: A Study of Small Business Presence," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 283-292, May.
- Etzkowitz, Henry & de Mello, Jose Manoel Carvalho & Almeida, Mariza, 2005. "Towards "meta-innovation" in Brazil: The evolution of the incubator and the emergence of a triple helix," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 411-424, May.
- Rudy Aernoudt, 2004. "Incubators: Tool for Entrepreneurship?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 23(2), pages 127-135, 09.
- Lois Peters & Mark Rice & Malavika Sundararajan, 2004. "The Role of Incubators in the Entrepreneurial Process," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 83-91, 01.
- Huseyin Leblebici & Nina Shah, 2004. "The Birth, Transformation and Regeneration of Business Incubators as New Organisational Forms: Understanding the Interplay between Organisational History and Organisational Theory," Business History, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(3), pages 353-380.
- Gil Avnimelech & Dafna Schwartz & Raphael Bar-El, 2006. "Entrepreneurial High-tech Cluster Development: Israel's Experience with Venture Capital and Technological Incubators," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(9), pages 1181-1198, July.
- Pier A. Abetti, 2004. "Government-Supported Incubators in the Helsinki Region, Finland: Infrastructure, Results, and Best Practices," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 19-40, 01.
- Nowak, Michael J. & Grantham, Charles E., 2000. "The virtual incubator: managing human capital in the software industry," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 125-134, February.
- I. Pena, 2004. "Business Incubation Centers and New Firm Growth in the Basque Country," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 22(3_4), pages 223-236, 04.
- Maximilian Zedtwitz & Rosa Grimaldi, 2006. "Are Service Profiles Incubator-Specific? Results from an Empirical Investigation in Italy," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 31(4), pages 459-468, 07. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:unm:unumer:2009054. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ad Notten)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.