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White Knights and the Corporate Governance of Hostile Takeovers

Author

Listed:
  • Riccardo Calcagno

    () (VU University Amsterdam)

  • Sonia Falconieri

    () (Brunel University)

Abstract

We analyze the dynamics of takeover contests where hostile raiders compete against white knights involved by a lead blockholder of the target firm (the incumbent). We assume that the incumbent has the power to bargain with the potential bidders to set a minimum takeover price. We characterize the conditions under which a white knight wins the takeover contest despite the smaller value of its synergies as compared to those of the hostile bidder. The paper provides a new explanation for the reason why we observe so few hostile takeovers in reality; moreover, it sheds some light on the effectiveness of white knights as an anti-takeover device and the role played by leading minority blockholders in the market for corporate control.

Suggested Citation

  • Riccardo Calcagno & Sonia Falconieri, 2008. "White Knights and the Corporate Governance of Hostile Takeovers," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 08-118/2, Tinbergen Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:tin:wpaper:20080118
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    File URL: http://papers.tinbergen.nl/08118.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Henry G. Manne, 1965. "Mergers and the Market for Corporate Control," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73, pages 110-110.
    2. Shivdasani, Anil, 1993. "Board composition, ownership structure, and hostile takeovers," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1-3), pages 167-198, April.
    3. Ellie G. Harris, 1990. "Antitakeover Measures, Golden Parachutes, and Target Firm Shareholder Welfare," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 21(4), pages 614-625, Winter.
    4. Sara B. Moeller & Frederik P. Schlingemann & René M. Stulz, 2005. "Wealth Destruction on a Massive Scale? A Study of Acquiring-Firm Returns in the Recent Merger Wave," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(2), pages 757-782, April.
    5. S. Rosenkranz & U. Weitzel, 2005. "Bargaining in Mergers: The Role of Outside Options and Termination Provisions," Working Papers 05-32, Utrecht School of Economics.
    6. Jay C. Hartzell, 2004. "What's In It for Me? CEOs Whose Firms Are Acquired," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 17(1), pages 37-61.
    7. Mike Burkart & Denis Gromb & Fausto Panunzi, 2000. "Agency Conflicts in Public and Negotiated Transfers of Corporate Control," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(2), pages 647-677, April.
    8. Gregor Andrade & Mark Mitchell & Erik Stafford, 2001. "New Evidence and Perspectives on Mergers," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 103-120, Spring.
    9. Eckbo, B. Espen, 2009. "Bidding strategies and takeover premiums: A review," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 149-178, February.
    10. Ajeyo Banerjee & James E. Owers, 1992. "Wealth Reduction in White Knight Bids," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 21(3), Fall.
    11. Sven-Olof Fridolfsson & Johan Stennek, 2005. "Why Mergers Reduce Profits And Raise Share Prices-A Theory Of Preemptive Mergers," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(5), pages 1083-1104, September.
    12. Henry G. Manne, 1965. "Mergers and the Market for Corporate Control," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73, pages 351-351.
    13. A Cosh & P Guest, 2001. "The Long-Run Performance of Hostile Takeovers: UK Evidence," Working Papers wp215, Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge.
    14. Audra L. Boone & J. Harold Mulherin, 2007. "How Are Firms Sold?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(2), pages 847-875, April.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Hostile takeovers; white knights; Nash bargaining;

    JEL classification:

    • D44 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Auctions
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance

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