Innovation and production in the Norwegian aluminium industry
The innovation and production system of the Norwegian primary aluminium industry has changed during the last 100 years. In the first phase from 1908-1945, the locus of innovation resided first and foremost abroad. In the second phase (1945-1986) the Norwegian aluminium industry gradually created a more autonomous path regarding innovation and production. The Norwegian Government created supporting institutions, and in combination company strategies, this laid foundations for the National champions Hydro and Elektrokjemisk to enter. The third phase (1986- ) is first and foremost associated with the creation of Norwegian vertically integrated aluminium companies and horizontal expansion marked by the merger of ÅSV and Norsk Hydro (1986).
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- Malerba, Franco, 2002. "Sectoral systems of innovation and production," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 247-264, February.
- Fulvio Castellacci, 2007.
"Innovation in Norway in a European Perspective,"
Working Papers on Innovation Studies
20070609, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
- Olav Wicken, 2007. "The Layers of National Innovation Systems: The Historical Evolution of a National Innovation System in Norway," Working Papers on Innovation Studies 20070601, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
- Smith,George David, 1988. "From Monopoly to Competition," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521352611, December.
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