Earnings Management in Nonprofit Organizations: Does Governmental Financing Play a Role?
A vast amount of research has documented the existence of earnings management in for-profit settings. Nonprofit organizations are thought to pay less attention to the bottom line of the income statement. Earnings management research in nonprofit settings has therefore focused on the manipulation of expenses in order to improve efficiency ratios or taxable income, not reported earnings per se. Given a setting in which such ratios are not reported to the public, manipulation of the actual bottom line by nonprofit organizations is explored in light of the importance of governmental subsidies. The results suggest that nonprofit organizations drive their results towards the breakeven point and that manipulation seems to be intensified by increased governmental funding.
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- Brickley, James A & Van Horn, R Lawrence, 2002. "Managerial Incentives in Nonprofit Organizations: Evidence from Hospitals," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(1), pages 227-49, April.
- S. Verbruggen & J. Christiaens & K. Milis, 2009. "Can resource dependence and coercive isomorphism explain nonprofit organizations’ compliance with reporting standards?," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 09/616, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
- Burgstahler, David & Dichev, Ilia, 1997. "Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 99-126, December.
- Deneffe, Daniel & Masson, Robert T., 2002. "What do not-for-profit hospitals maximize?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 461-492, April.
- McNichols, Maureen F., 2000. "Research design issues in earnings management studies," Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 19(4-5), pages 313-345.
- Deneffe, Daniel & Masson, Robert T., 2002. "Erratum to "What do not-for-profit hospitals maximize?": [Internat. J. of Ind. Organization 20(4) (2002) 461-492]," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(7), pages 1059-1059, September.
- Fields, Thomas D. & Lys, Thomas Z. & Vincent, Linda, 2001. "Empirical research on accounting choice," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1-3), pages 255-307, September.
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