U.S. Research Joint Ventures with International Partners
In the United States, as in most industrialized nations, aggregate technological advancement declined during the 1970s and early 1980s. The U.S. Congress was quick to respond to this down turn by passing a number of technology- and innovation-related initiatives, one of which was the National Cooperative Research Act (NCRA) of 1984. It has been argued that this policy response is an example of government acting as entrepreneur because the enabling legislation was both innovative and characterized by entrepreneurial risk. In this paper we examine empirically covariates with the trend in the formation of research joint ventures (RJVs) promulgated by the NCRA and with the probability that a RJV will have an international research partner. We find that RJV formations seem to increase in times when industrial investments in research and development (R&D) decrease, and we conclude that RJVs might thus be a substitute for internal R&D activity. We also find that the probability of a RJV having an international research partner increases as the membership size of the RJV increases. We conclude that as membership size increases, the ability of any one member to appropriate the collective research contributions from the other members, and thus gain a competitive advantage, decreases. Thus, the cost of including in the RJV an international partner, which we argue could represent a potential intellectual capital leakage, decreases.
|Date of creation:||04 Oct 2013|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: UNC Greensboro, Department of Economics, PO Box 26170, Bryan Building 462, Greensboro, NC 27402|
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- Bronwyn H. Hall & Albert N. Link & John T. Scott, 2003.
"Universities as Research Partners,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 85(2), pages 485-491, May.
- Hall, Browyn H. & Link, Albert N. & Scott, John T., 2000. "Universities as Research Partners," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt1np920r9, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- Bronwyn H. Hall & Albert N. Link & John T. Scott, 2001. "Universities as Research Partners," Development and Comp Systems 0012001, EconWPA.
- Bronwyn H. Hall, Albert N. Link and John T. Scott., 2000. "Universities as Research Partners," Economics Working Papers E00-276, University of California at Berkeley.
- Hall, Bronwyn & Link, Albert & Scott, John, 2010. "Universities as Research Partners," UNCG Economics Working Papers 10-9, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
- Bronwyn H. Hall & Albert N. Link & John T. Scott, 2000. "Universities as Research Partners," NBER Working Papers 7643, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Leyden, Dennis Patrick & Link, Albert N., 1999. "Federal laboratories as research partners," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 575-592, May. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)