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Diffusion des innovations technologiques, emploi et théorie de compensation (The diffusion of technological innovations, employment and the compensation theory)

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  • Sami Saafi

    () (Labrii, ULCO)

Abstract

Certes, l’innovation technologique a souvent été synonyme de chômage pour l’opinion publique. Cette opinion est fondée sur l’idée de substitution du capital au travail. En revanche, selon la théorie de compensation, l’innovation technologique détruit des emplois à court terme (effet de remplacement), mais en crée à moyen et à long terme (effet de compensation). La théorie de compensation postule qu’à long terme - c’est-à-dire lorsque l’accumulation de nouveau capital est possible et le revenu global disponible n’est plus supposé constant, l’extension des capacités de production, favorisée par l’augmentation des profits, permet de créer de nouveaux emplois. Néanmoins les mécanismes de compensation requièrent un transfert fluide de la main d’oeuvre, du capital et de la demande entre les différentes activités. Un tel transfert s’opère d’autant mieux que les marchés sont efficients, flexibles, c’est-à-dire que les prix s’adaptent et que les barrières de mobilités sont réduites. Certainly, in the public opinion, technological innovation has often been considered as synonymous to unemployment. This opinion is based on the idea of substitution capital/labor. However, according to the compensation theory, technological innovations destroy jobs in the short term (replacement effect) but create new jobs in the medium and long terms (compensation effect). The compensation theory postulates that in the long term- that is to say when new capital accumulation is possible and available, total income is not assumed constant- the extension of production capacities, favored by the increase of benefits, allows to create new jobs. But, the compensation mechanisms request a fluid transfer of employees, capital and demand between different activities. Such transfer takes place even better when markets are efficient, flexible, which means that prices are flexible and that the barriers to mobility are reduced.

Suggested Citation

  • Sami Saafi, 2008. "Diffusion des innovations technologiques, emploi et théorie de compensation (The diffusion of technological innovations, employment and the compensation theory)," Working Papers 184, Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO / Research Unit on Industry and Innovation.
  • Handle: RePEc:rii:riidoc:184
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Van Reenen, John, 1997. "Employment and Technological Innovation: Evidence from U.K. Manufacturing Firms," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(2), pages 255-284, April.
    2. Massimiliano Tancioni & Roberto Simonetti, 2002. "A Macroeconometric Model for the Analysis of the Impact of Technological Change and Trade on Employment," Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics, , vol. 13(1-3), pages 185-221, January.
    3. Harrison, Rupert & Jaumandreu, Jordi & Mairesse, Jacques & Peters, Bettina, 2014. "Does innovation stimulate employment? A firm-level analysis using comparable micro-data from four European countries," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 29-43.
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    6. Neary, J Peter, 1981. "On the Short-Run Effects of Technological Progress," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 33(2), pages 224-233, July.
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    8. R. Layard & S. Nickell, 1985. "The Causes of British Unemployment," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 111(1), pages 62-85, February.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    : Technological innovations; employment; compensation theory;

    JEL classification:

    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection

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