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Dynamic Effects of Monetary Policy Shocks in Malawi


  • Harold Ngalawa

    () (School of Economics and Finance, University of KwaZulu-Natal)

  • Nicola Viegi

    () (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)


This paper sets out to investigate the process through which monetary policy affects economic activity in Malawi. Using innovation accounting in a structural vector autoregressive model, it is established that monetary authorities in Malawi employ hybrid operating procedures and pursue both price stability and high growth and employment objectives. Two operating targets of monetary policy are identified, viz., bank rate and reserve money, and it is demonstrated that the former is a more effective measure of monetary policy than the latter. The study also illustrates that bank lending, exchange rates and aggregate money supply contain important additional information in the transmission process of monetary policy shocks in Malawi. Furthermore, it is shown that the floatation of the Malawi Kwacha in February 1994 had considerable effects on the country’s monetary transmission process. In the post-1994 period, the role of exchange rates became more conspicuous than before although its impact was weakened; and the importance of aggregate money supply and bank lending in transmitting monetary policy impulses was enhanced. Overall, the monetary transmission process evolved from a weak, blurred process to a somewhat strong, less ambiguous mechanism.

Suggested Citation

  • Harold Ngalawa & Nicola Viegi, 2011. "Dynamic Effects of Monetary Policy Shocks in Malawi," Working Papers 201112, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:pre:wpaper:201112

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Simplice A. Asongu, 2014. "Does money matter in Africa?: New empirics on long- and short-run effects of monetary policy on output and prices," Indian Growth and Development Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 7(2), pages 142-180, November.
    2. Anthony M. Simpasa & Boaz Nandwa & Tiguéné Nabassaga, 2014. "Working Paper - 211 - Bank Lending Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission in Zambia: Evidence from Bank-Level Data," Working Paper Series 2147, African Development Bank.
    3. Simplice A. Asongu, 2014. "Correcting Inflation with Financial Dynamic Fundamentals: Which Adjustments Matter in Africa?," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 64-73, April.
    4. Daniel C. Hickman & William W. Olney, 2011. "Globalization and Investment in Human Capital," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 64(4), pages 654-672, July.
    5. Roseline Nyakerario Misati & Esman Morekwa Nyamongo & Isaac Mwangi, 2013. "Commodity price shocks and inflation in a net oil-importing economy," OPEC Energy Review, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, vol. 37(2), pages 125-148, June.
    6. Kronick, Jeremy, 2015. "Do Loan-to-Value Ratio Regulation Changes Affect Canadian Mortgage Credit?," MPRA Paper 73671, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. repec:ksp:journ3:v:1:y:2015:i:4:p:256-274 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Deraniyagala, Sonali & Kaluwa, Ben, 2011. "Macroeconomic policy for employment creation: The case of Malawi," MPRA Paper 52715, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Adebayo Augustine Kutu & Harold Ngalawa, 2016. "Monetary Policy Shocks And Industrial Output In Brics Countries," SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, University of Piraeus, vol. 66(3), pages 3-24, July-Sept.
    10. Chance Ngamanya Mwabutwa & Nicola Viegi & Manoel Bittencourt, 2016. "Evolution Of Monetary Policy Transmission Mechanism In Malawi: A Tvp-Var Approach," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 41(1), pages 33-55, March.
    11. Mengesha, Lula G. & Holmes, Mark J., 2013. "Monetary policy and its transmission mechanisms in Eritrea," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 766-780.
    12. Simplice Asongu, 2016. "New empirics of monetary policy dynamics: evidence from the CFA franc zones," African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 7(2), pages 164-204, June.
    13. repec:spd:journl:v:67:y:2017:i:3:p:49-78 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Mishra, Prachi & Montiel, Peter, 2013. "How effective is monetary transmission in low-income countries? A survey of the empirical evidence," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 187-216.
    15. Zelealem Yiheyis & Emmanuel Cleeve, 2016. "Dynamics of the Real Exchange Rate, Inflation, and Output Growth: The Case of Malawi," International Journal of Economics and Finance, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 8(10), pages 23-39, October.
    16. Mishra, Prachi & Montiel, Peter J & Spilimbergo, Antonio, 2010. "Monetary transmission in low income countries," CEPR Discussion Papers 7951, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    17. Mishra, Prachi & Montiel, Peter J & Spilimbergo, Antonio, 2011. "How Effective Is Monetary Transmission in Developing Countries? A Survey of the Empirical Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 8577, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    18. Tafirenyika Sunde & Olusegun A. Akanbi, 2016. "Sources of unemployment in Namibia: an application of the structural VAR approach," International Journal of Sustainable Economy, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 8(2), pages 125-143.
    19. Douanla Tayo, Lionel, 2014. "Assessing the effect of monetary policy on economic growth in franc zone," MPRA Paper 60201, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Tafirenyika SUNDE, 2015. "The effects of monetary policy on unemployment in Namibia," Journal of Economic and Social Thought, KSP Journals, vol. 2(4), pages 256-274, December.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies

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