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A Seasonality in the Pakistani Equity Market: The Ramadhan Effect


  • Husain, Fazal


This paper attempts to explore a seasonal pattern, the Ramadhan effect, in the Pakistani equity market. Ramadhan, the holy month of fasting, is expected to affect the behavior of stock market in Pakistan where the environment in Ramadhan is different from other months as people devote more time to perform rituals and the general economic activity slows down. The effects of Ramadhan on mean return and stock returns volatility are examined by including a dummy variable in regressions and GARCH models respectively. The analysis indicates a significant decline in stock returns volatility in this month although the mean return indicates no significant change.

Suggested Citation

  • Husain, Fazal, 1998. "A Seasonality in the Pakistani Equity Market: The Ramadhan Effect," MPRA Paper 5032, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:5032

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. French, Kenneth R., 1980. "Stock returns and the weekend effect," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 55-69, March.
    2. Keim, Donald B., 1983. "Size-related anomalies and stock return seasonality : Further empirical evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 13-32, June.
    3. Gultekin, Mustafa N. & Gultekin, N. Bulent, 1983. "Stock market seasonality : International Evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 469-481, December.
    4. Ariel, Robert A., 1987. "A monthly effect in stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 161-174, March.
    5. Gibbons, Michael R & Hess, Patrick, 1981. "Day of the Week Effects and Asset Returns," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 54(4), pages 579-596, October.
    6. Harris, Lawrence, 1986. "A transaction data study of weekly and intradaily patterns in stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 99-117, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Abbes, Mouna Boujelbène & Abdelhédi-Zouch, Mouna, 2015. "Does hajj pilgrimage affect the Islamic investor sentiment?," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 138-152.
    2. Seyyed, Fazal J. & Abraham, Abraham & Al-Hajji, Mohsen, 2005. "Seasonality in stock returns and volatility: The Ramadan effect," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 374-383, September.
    3. Hasbullah, Faruq & Masih, Mansur, 2016. "Fast profits in a fasting month? A markov regime switching approach in search of ramadan effect on stock markets," MPRA Paper 72149, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Peter Hansen & Asger Lunde, 2003. "Testing the Significance of Calendar Effects," Working Papers 2003-03, Brown University, Department of Economics.
    5. Galor, Oded & Moav, Omer & Vollrath, Dietrich, 2003. "Land Inequality and the Origin of Divergence and Overtaking in the Growth Process: Theory and Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 3817, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. repec:eee:riibaf:v:42:y:2017:i:c:p:233-241 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Murat Akbalik & K. Batu Tunay, 2016. "An Analysis Of Ramadan Effect By Gjr-Garch Model: Case Of Borsa Istanbul," Oeconomia Copernicana, Institute of Economic Research, vol. 7(4), pages 593-612, December.
    8. Salman Syed Ali & Khalid Mustafa, 2001. "Testing Semi-strong Form Efficiency of Stock Market," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(4), pages 651-674.
    9. repec:pal:assmgt:v:18:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1057_s41260-016-0028-1 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Attiya Y. Javid, 2007. "Stock Market Reaction to Catastrophic Shock: Evidence from Listed Pakistani Firms," PIDE-Working Papers 2007:37, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    11. Matthew C. Mitchell & Muhamad Iqbal Mohd Rafi & Sean Severe & Jeffrey A. Kappen, 2014. "Conventional Vs. Islamic Finance: The Impact Of Ramadan Upon Sharia-Compliant Markets," Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies, Faculty of Economics, Vilnius University, vol. 5(1).
    12. Halari, Anwar & Tantisantiwong, Nongnuch & Power, David. M. & Helliar, Christine, 2015. "Islamic calendar anomalies: Evidence from Pakistani firm-level data," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 64-73.
    13. repec:pje:journl:article27sumi is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Stock Prices; Pakistan; Ramadhan; Seasonality; Equity Market;

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G14 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading


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