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Y a-t-il une gouvernance des systèmes d’innovation dans les pays d’Afrique du Nord et du Moyen-Orient?
[Is there any NSI governance in MENA region]


  • Arvanitis, Rigas
  • M'HENNI, Hatem
  • Tsipouri, Lena


This article summarizes observations on the technological and innovation level of four Mediterranean countries (Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia). Although these concepts are still controversial, we try to examine the specific issue of the governance of innovation policies. This approach is most adapted to countries where the “national system of innovation” concept seems not to apply. Our findings show that even though a real political will has been raised on innovation by the governments, the difficulties remain on many key aspects: (1) State policies have served mainly to increase public research and the recent efforts to define the contours of an innovation policy have had little if no impact on the economy; (2) we suggest this is due to the fact that State policies oriented to promote innovation are badly accepted by other economic actors (due to a “top-down” approach that prevails in all four countries); (3) innovation policies seem hesitant and discontinuous and the voluntarism is rather of circumstances (too many changes of the administration with the governmental changes in Tunisia and Morocco, continuous changes of personal in charge in Jordan, changes in the references framework in Egypt); (4) scientific research is real in these countries and is based on individuals’ efforts, and innovation is developing in enterprises that have little knowledge of policies that are supposed to be oriented to tem. We conclude that the “world of innovation” is growing, even when the State seems to play a predominant role it has little impact and a low efficiency.

Suggested Citation

  • Arvanitis, Rigas & M'HENNI, Hatem & Tsipouri, Lena, 2009. "Y a-t-il une gouvernance des systèmes d’innovation dans les pays d’Afrique du Nord et du Moyen-Orient?
    [Is there any NSI governance in MENA region]
    ," MPRA Paper 27539, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:27539

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Lee, Keun & Lim, Chaisung, 2001. "Technological regimes, catching-up and leapfrogging: findings from the Korean industries," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 459-483, March.
    2. Murat Yildizoglu & M. Rahmouni & Mohamed Ayadi, 2007. "Sectoral patterns of innovation in a developing country: The Tunisian case," Post-Print hal-00394409, HAL.
    3. Arvanitis, Rigas & Zhao, Wei & Qiu, Haixiong & Xu, Jian-niu, 2006. "Technological learning in six firms in Southern China: success and limits of an industrialisation model," MPRA Paper 18553, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2006.
    4. Pirela, Arnoldo & Rengifo, Rafael & Mercado, Alexis & Arvanitis, Rigas, 1993. "Technological learning and entrepreneurial behaviour: A taxonomy of the chemical industry in Venezuela," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 22(5-6), pages 431-453, November.
    5. Villavicencio, Daniel & Arvanitis, Rigas, 1994. "Transferencia de tecnología y aprendizaje tecnológico. Reflexiones basadas en trabajos empíricos," El Trimestre Económico, Fondo de Cultura Económica, vol. 0(242), pages 257-279, abril-jun.
    6. Gabsi, Foued & Mhenni, Hatem & Koouba, Karim, 2008. "Innovation Determinants in Emerging Countries: An Empirical Study at the Tunisian Firms level," MPRA Paper 17940, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2008.
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    More about this item


    governance; innovation policies; public research; world of innovation; institutions; R&D; Maghreb; Machreq;

    JEL classification:

    • G38 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Government Policy and Regulation


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