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Industrial energy from water-mills in the European economy, 5th to 18th Centuries: the limitations of power


  • Munro, John H.


The water-mill, though known in the Roman Empire from the second century BCE, did not come to enjoy any widespread use until the 4th or 5th centuries CE, and then chiefly in the West, which was then experiencing not only a rapid decline in the supply of slaves, but also widespread depopulation, and thus a severe scarcity of labour. For the West -- those regions that came to form Europe -- the water-mill then became by far the predominant ‘prime mover’: i.e., an apparatus that converts natural energy into mechanical power. The classic study, as a monograph in technological and engineering history, is Terry S. Reynolds, Stronger than a Hundred Men: A History of the Vertical Water Wheel (Baltimore and London, 1983). Indeed he has calculated that even the early medieval watermills provided about 2 hp, enough to liberate from 30 to 60 persons from the wearisome task of grinding grain into flour, the mill’s virtually sole use during the first millennium. He, and others, have neglected to note, however, that, apart from providing such economies in labour, water-mills also conserved on the capital and land resources (fodder crops) that would have been required to produce a comparable amount of power with animal-powered mills (horses, mules). The aim of this study is to analyse in greater depth the economic implications and consequences of the application of water-mills, their impact on European economic history up to the Industrial Revolution era, in those areas not well treated by Reynolds and other historians: in the fields of mining, metallurgy, and textiles – including the cotton industry of the initial phase of the Industrial Revolution. The study also necessarily analyses as well the necessary technological innovations to achieve the productivity gains in these economic sectors: especially in the devices (cam and crankshafts) to convert the basic rotary power of mills into reciprocal power, initially to operate trip-hammers; and the more gradual, if only late-medieval, displacement of the original undershot wheels with the far more effective, if more capital costly, overshot wheels. The study thus begins with the late-medieval technological revolutions in both mining and metallurgy, providing the key transitions to the early-modern European economy. A demonstration of significant productivity gains is counterbalanced, however, in this study by an examination of the physical and economic limitations on the uses of water-power and, particularly in the field of woollen-cloth production, the negative consequences of water-powered machinery, in the form of both fulling-mills and gig-mills (cloth-finishing), in impairing the quality of the finer fabrics. In particular, cost-benefit analyses are provided to show why the late-medieval English cloth industry did indeed achieve significant gains in switching from foot- to mechanical-fulling, while, at the same time, the leading draperies of the late-medieval Low Countries were perfectly rational in eschewing such mills before the 16th century – when they did indeed adopt them, for rather different types of textiles. On the other hand, and indeed in striking contrast, the application of water-power in the medieval production of silks and then especially in the 18th-century production of the new cotton textiles, with those major innovations of the Industrial Revolution era (water-frame and mule) had the opposite result: of greatly improving quality while also radically reducing production costs. Indeed quality-improvements in spinning cotton yarns was the chief goal of these entrepreneurs, with the ambition of displacing fine Asian textiles from world markets.

Suggested Citation

  • Munro, John H., 2002. "Industrial energy from water-mills in the European economy, 5th to 18th Centuries: the limitations of power," MPRA Paper 11027, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Jun 2002.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:11027

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. John Langdon, 1991. "Water-mills and windmills in the west midlands, 1086-1500," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 44(3), pages 424-444, August.
    2. John H. Munro, 1998. "The 'Industrial Crisis' of the English Textile Towns, c.1290 - c.1330," Working Papers munro-98-02, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
    3. Thomas, Brinley, 1986. "Was there an energy crisis in Great Britain in the 17th century?," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 124-152, April.
    4. Patrick Chorley, 1987. "The cloth exports of Flanders and northern France during the thirteenth century: a luxury trade?," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 40(3), pages 349-379, August.
    5. Munro, John H., 1998. "The symbiosis of towns and textiles: urban institutions and the changing fortunes of cloth manufacturing in the Low Countries and England, 1270 - 1570," MPRA Paper 11266, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Sep 1998.
    6. J. N. Bartlett, 1959. "The Expansion And Decline Of York In The Later Middle Ages," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 12(1), pages 17-33, August.
    7. John H. Munro, 1999. "The Low Countries' Export Trade in Textiles with the Mediterranean Basin, 1200-1600: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Comparative Advantages in Overland and Maritime Trade Routes," Working Papers munro-99-01, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
    8. Kowaleski,Maryanne, 1995. "Local Markets and Regional Trade in Medieval Exeter," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521333719.
    9. Munro, John H., 1988. "Deflation and the petty coinage problem in the late-medieval economy: The case of Flanders, 1334-1484," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 387-423, October.
    10. Munro, John H., 2000. "The 'New Institutional Economics' and the Changing Fortunes of Fairs in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: the Textile Trades, Warfare, and Transaction Costs," MPRA Paper 11029, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Feb 2001.
    11. N/A, 1967. "Appendix," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 41(1), pages 47-48, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jens Kaalhauge Nielsen, 2010. "The flower that didn't bloom: why did the industrial revolution happen in Europe and not in China?," Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(1), pages 23-44.
    2. Ioannis N. Kessides & David C. Wade, 2011. "Deriving an Improved Dynamic EROI to Provide Better Information for Energy Planners," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 3(12), pages 1-19, December.

    More about this item


    technology; energy; hydraulic power; water-power; water-mills; fulling mills; textiles; cottons; woollens; silks; mining; metallurgy; blast furnaces; forges; iron; silver; copper; Roman Empire; medieval Europe; Italy; Flanders; England; Industrial Revolution;

    JEL classification:

    • N63 - Economic History - - Manufacturing and Construction - - - Europe: Pre-1913
    • O30 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - General
    • N53 - Economic History - - Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment and Extractive Industries - - - Europe: Pre-1913
    • Q40 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - General
    • O52 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Europe
    • L60 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - General


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