IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pid/wpaper/200740.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Public Provision of Education and Government Spending in Pakistan

Author

Listed:
  • Muhammad Akram

    (International Institute of Islamic Economics, International Islamic University, Islamabad.)

  • Faheem Jehangir Khan

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad)

Abstract

The study has been carried out to measure the incidence of government spending on education in Pakistan at the provincial (both rural and urban) level, using the primary data of the Pakistan Social Standard Living Measures Survey (PSLM), 2004-2005, and by employing the three-step Benefit Incidence Approach methodology. The paper reviews the national policies emphasising provision of education in Pakistan, as well as the trend in coverage and public sector spending on education facilities in Pakistan. The study examines the inequalities in resource distribution and service provision in relation to the government education expenditure. The rural areas of Pakistan are the more disadvantaged in the provision of the education facilities. Overall, the expenditure on the education sector is progressive, both at the regional and the provincial levels. However, variation exists in the shares of different income groups’ benefit from the provision of educational facilities created by public expenditure.

Suggested Citation

  • Muhammad Akram & Faheem Jehangir Khan, 2007. "Public Provision of Education and Government Spending in Pakistan," PIDE-Working Papers 2007:40, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:wpaper:2007:40
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/Working%20Paper/WorkingPaper-40.pdf
    File Function: First Version, 2007
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Sakellariou, Chris & Patrinos, Harry Anthony, 2004. "Incidence analysis of public support to the private education sector in Cote d'Ivoire," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3231, The World Bank.
    2. Gustafsson, Bjorn & Li, Shi, 2004. "Expenditures on education and health care and poverty in rural China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 292-301.
    3. Fazal Husain & Muhammad Ali Qasim & Khalid Hameed Sheikh, 2003. "An Analysis of Public Expenditure on Education in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(4), pages 771-780.
    4. Psacharopoulos, George, 1994. "Returns to investment in education: A global update," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(9), pages 1325-1343, September.
    5. Gemmell, Norman, 1985. "The Incidence of Government Expenditure and Redistribution in the United Kingdom," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 52(27), pages 335-344, August.
    6. Stephen D. Younger, 1999. "The Relative Progressivity of Social Services in Ecuador," Public Finance Review, , vol. 27(3), pages 310-352, May.
    7. Mr. Hamid R Davoodi & Mr. Erwin H Tiongson & Sawitree S. Asawanuchit, 2003. "How Useful Are Benefit Incidence Analyses of Public Education and Health Spending," IMF Working Papers 2003/227, International Monetary Fund.
    8. Gupta, Sanjeev & Verhoeven, Marijn & Tiongson, Erwin R., 2002. "The effectiveness of government spending on education and health care in developing and transition economies," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 717-737, November.
    9. David E. Sahn & Stephen D. Younger, 2000. "Expenditure incidence in Africa: microeconomic evidence," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 21(3), pages 329-347, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Tehmina Sattar, 2012. "A Sociological Analysis of Education as a Prerequisite for the Process of Development: A Case of Southern Punjab (Pakistan)," International Journal of Learning and Development, Macrothink Institute, vol. 2(2), pages 112-132, April.
    2. Asma, Hyder & Javaid, Zainab, 2009. "Impact of Training on Earnings: Evidence from Pakistani Industries," MPRA Paper 19570, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ahmed Nawaz Hakro & Muhammed Akram, 2007. "The Incidence of Government Expenditures on Education and Health: Microeconomic Evidence from Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 12(2), pages 27-48, Jul-Dec.
    2. Muhammad Akram & Faheem Jehangir Khan, 2007. "Health Care Services and Government Spending in Pakistan," PIDE-Working Papers 2007:32, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    3. Essama-Nssah, B., 2008. "Assessing the redistributive effect of fiscal policy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4592, The World Bank.
    4. Gaddah, Mawuli & Munro, Alistair & Quartey, Peter, 2016. "Education subsidy and school enrollments in rural Ghana," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 143-152.
    5. AfDB AfDB, 2007. "Working Paper 92 - Education Expenditures and School Enrolment in Africa: Illustrations from Nigeria and Other SANE Countries," Working Paper Series 2225, African Development Bank.
    6. Gebregziabher, Fiseha & Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel, 2014. "Social spending and aggregate welfare in developing and transition economies," WIDER Working Paper Series 082, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    7. Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, 2001. "The Impact of Budgets on the Poor: Tax and Benefit," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0110, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
    8. Mr. Emanuele Baldacci & Mr. Benedict J. Clements & Mr. Sanjeev Gupta & Mr. Larry Q Cui, 2004. "Social Spending, Human Capital, and Growth in Developing Countries: Implications for Achieving the MDGs," IMF Working Papers 2004/217, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Iftikhar Ahmad, 2016. "Assessing the Effects of Fiscal Decentralization on the Education Sector: A Cross-Country Analysis," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 21(2), pages 53-96, July-Dec.
    10. Fan, Shenggen & Nyange, David & Rao, Neetha, 2005. "Public investment and poverty reduction in Tanzania: evidence from household survey data," DSGD discussion papers 18, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    11. Chakraborty, Lekha & Singh, Yadawendra & Jacob, Jannet Farida, 2012. "Public Expenditure Benefit Incidence on Health: Selective Evidence from India," Working Papers 12/111, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
    12. Baldacci, Emanuele & Clements, Benedict & Gupta, Sanjeev & Cui, Qiang, 2008. "Social Spending, Human Capital, and Growth in Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 1317-1341, August.
    13. Thomas Roca & Hélène Ferrer, 2016. "Resilience to crisis through social protection: Can we build the case?," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2016-96, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    14. AfDB AfDB, 2007. "Working Paper 92 - Education Expenditures and School Enrolment in Africa: Illustrations from Nigeria and Other SANE Countries," Working Paper Series 2305, African Development Bank.
    15. Thomas Roca & Hélène Ferrer, 2016. "Resilience to crisis through social protection: Can we build the case?," WIDER Working Paper Series 096, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    16. Ferreira, Pedro Cavalcanti & Galvao Jr., Antonio F. & Gomes, Fabio Augusto Reis & Pessoa, Samuel de Abreu, 2010. "The effects of external and internal shocks on total factor productivity," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 298-309, August.
    17. Harold Alderman & John Hoddinott & Bill Kinsey, 2006. "Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(3), pages 450-474, July.
    18. Paolo Epifani & Gino Gancia, 2008. "The Skill Bias of World Trade," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(530), pages 927-960, July.
    19. Trejos, Alberto & Ferreira, Pedro Cavalcanti, 2008. "Trade in intermediate goods and total factor productivity," FGV EPGE Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 676, EPGE Brazilian School of Economics and Finance - FGV EPGE (Brazil).
    20. Chris Papageorgiou & Fidel Pérez Sebastián, 2005. "Is The Speed Of Convergence A Good Proxy For The Transitional Growth Path?," Working Papers. Serie AD 2005-33, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Education; Public Expenditure; Public Policy; Gini Coefficient; Concentration Coefficient; Benefit Incidence Approach;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • H52 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Education
    • H53 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I22 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Educational Finance; Financial Aid
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pid:wpaper:2007:40. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/pideipk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Khurram Iqbal (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/pideipk.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.