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Monetary Policy Responses to the Crisis and Exit Strategies

  • Makoto Minegishi
  • Boris Cournède

Central banks have responded with exceptional vigour to the crisis by using their traditional interest-rate tools to their limits and deploying a wide range of unconventional measures. This paper documents these responses in a systematic way, reviews the evidence about their impact, and discusses the need to exit from these measures. Unconventional monetary policy measures appear to have been broadly successful in terms of improving conditions in financial markets and stabilising the real economy. In line with the improvement in functioning of financial markets, however, these unconventional measures should be gradually removed. Given the considerable changes in the size and composition of central banks' balance sheets, the exit will likely involve the combination of various tools. More challenging questions surround the decisions of when and how fast the current exceptional amount of stimulus should be reduced and then eliminated. A particularly important goal will be to preserve the hard-won anchoring of inflation expectations and dissipate any hypothetical fears that central banks? greater risk exposure and purchases of bonds issued or backed by governments might have reduced their independence regarding monetary policy decisions. Réponses de la politique monétaire à la crise et stratégies de sortie Les banques centrales ont répondu avec une vigueur exceptionnelle à la crise en poussant leurs instruments traditionnels de taux d'intérêt jusqu'à leurs limites et en déployant une vaste gamme de mesures non conventionnelles. La présente étude fournit une description systématique de ces mesures, fait le bilan des éléments disponibles permettant d'apprécier leur efficacité et examine le besoin de mettre progressivement fin à ces dispositifs. Dans l'ensemble, les mesures de politique monétaire non conventionnelle semblent avoir été couronnées de succès en contribuant à l'amélioration des conditions financières et à la stabilisation de l'économie réelle. Toutefois, au fur et à mesure que les marchés financiers retrouvent un fonctionnement plus normal, ces mesures non conventionnelles devront être retirées. Étant donné l'ampleur des changements qui ont affecté la taille et la composition du bilan des banques centrales, les stratégies de sortie devront nécessairement s'appuyer sur un large éventail d'instruments. Des questions plus délicates encore se poseront lorsqu'il s'agira de décider du calendrier et du rythme selon lesquels l'exceptionnel stimulus monétaire actuel devra être réduit puis éliminé. À cet égard, il sera crucial de préserver l'ancrage, durement acquis, des anticipations d'inflation et d'éviter une situation hypothétique dans laquelle le public craindrait que la plus grande exposition au risque des banques centrales tout comme leurs acquisitions de titres de dette publique ou quasi-publique puissent avoir réduit leur indépendance dans la conduite de la politique monétaire.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kml6xm7qgs6-en
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Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Economics Department Working Papers with number 753.

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Date of creation: 18 Feb 2010
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Handle: RePEc:oec:ecoaaa:753-en
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