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Strengthening Productive Capacities in Emerging Economies through Internationalisation: Evidence from the Appliance Industry

  • Federico Bonaglia
  • Andrea Goldstein

The emergence of a “second wave” of developing-country multinational enterprises (MNEs) in a variety of industries is one of the characterizing features of globalisation. These new MNEs did not delay their internationalisation until they were large, as did most of their predecessors, and often become global as a result of direct firm-to-firm contracting. Many grow large as they internationalise; conversely, they internationalise in order to grow large. This is a striking pattern which, if confirmed, indicates that enterprises from developing countries have pursued distinctive approaches to internationalisation. It is a further interesting hypothesis to investigate to what extent such firms, born as suppliers of established incumbents, have leveraged on their “latecomer” status to accelerate their internationalisation. This paper documents how emerging MNEs may follow quite different patterns to reach, or at least approach, global competitiveness. In particular, it investigates how three latecomer MNEs pursued global growth through accelerated internationalisation combined with strategic and organisational innovation. Haier (China), Mabe (Mexico) and Arçelik (Turkey) emerged as Dragon Multinationals in the large home appliances (so-called “white goods”) industry L'émergence dans plusieurs secteurs industriels d'une « deuxième vague » d’entreprises multinationales (EMN) issues de pays en développement constitue une des caractéristiques de la mondialisation. Contrairement à leurs prédécesseurs, ces nouvelles EMN n'ont pas attendu d’être une grande structure pour s’internationaliser, bien souvent elle se sont internationalisées à travers une stratégie de négociation directe d’entreprise à entreprise. Beaucoup d’entreprises se développent avant de s’internationaliser. Au contraire, les EMN s’internationalisent pour s’agrandir. Ce schéma interpelle car, si confirmé, il démontre que les entreprises des pays en développement ont eu une approche singulière à l’internationalisation. L’autre hypothèse intéressante consiste à d'étudier dans quelle mesure ces entreprises, à l’origine fournisseurs des entreprises établis dans les pays développés, ont su tirer profit de leur statut de « retardataire » pour accélérer leur internationalisation. Ce rapport explique comment des EMN émergents pourraient être amenées à suivre des schémas tout à fait différents pour intégrer la compétitivité mondiale, ou du moins s’en rapprocher. C’est une analyse qui démontre en particulier comment trois EMN « retardataires » (latecomers) ont mené à bien leur croissance mondiale par le biais d'une internationalisation accélérée, accompagnée d’une innovation stratégique et organisationnelle. Haier (en Chine), Mabe (au Mexique) et Arçelik (en Turquie) ont émergé comme des dragons multinationaux dans l’industrie de produits électro-ménagers (aussi dénommés « marchandises blanches »)...

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Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Development Centre Working Papers with number 262.

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Date of creation: Jul 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:oec:devaaa:262-en
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