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The Local Residential Land Use Regulatory Environment Across U.S. Housing Markets: Evidence from a New Wharton Index

Author

Listed:
  • Joseph Gyourko
  • Jonathan Hartley
  • Jacob Krimmel

Abstract

We report results from a new survey of local residential land use regulatory regimes for over 2,450 primarily suburban communities across the U.S. The most highly regulated markets are on the two coasts, with the San Francisco and New York City metropolitan areas being the most highly regulated according to our metric. Comparing our new data to that from a previous survey finds that the housing bust associated with the Great Recession did not lead any major market that previously was highly regulated to reverse course and deregulate to any significant extent. Moreover, regulation in most large coastal markets increased over time.

Suggested Citation

  • Joseph Gyourko & Jonathan Hartley & Jacob Krimmel, 2019. "The Local Residential Land Use Regulatory Environment Across U.S. Housing Markets: Evidence from a New Wharton Index," NBER Working Papers 26573, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:26573
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Been, Vicki & Ellen, Ingrid Gould & Gedal, Michael & Glaeser, Edward & McCabe, Brian J., 2016. "Preserving history or restricting development? The heterogeneous effects of historic districts on local housing markets in New York City," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 16-30.
    2. Glaeser, Edward L. & Ward, Bryce A., 2009. "The causes and consequences of land use regulation: Evidence from Greater Boston," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 265-278, May.
    3. Jackson, Kristoffer (Kip), 2018. "Regulation, land constraints, and California’s boom and bust," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 130-147.
    4. Albouy, David & Ehrlich, Gabriel, 2018. "Housing productivity and the social cost of land-use restrictions," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 101-120.
    5. Gedal, Michael & Ellen, Ingrid Gould, 2018. "Valuing urban land: Comparing the use of teardown and vacant land sales," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 190-203.
    6. Ganong, Peter & Shoag, Daniel, 2017. "Why has regional income convergence in the U.S. declined?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 76-90.
    7. Edward Glaeser & Joseph Gyourko, 2018. "The Economic Implications of Housing Supply," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 32(1), pages 3-30, Winter.
    8. Jackson, Kristoffer, 2016. "Do land use regulations stifle residential development? Evidence from California cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 45-56.
    9. Peter Ganong & Daniel W. Shoag, 2017. "Why Has Regional Income Convergence in the U.S. Declined?," NBER Working Papers 23609, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Joseph Gyourko & Albert Saiz & Anita Summers, 2008. "A New Measure of the Local Regulatory Environment for Housing Markets: The Wharton Residential Land Use Regulatory Index," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 45(3), pages 693-729, March.
    11. Brueckner, Jan K. & Singh, Ruchi, 2020. "Stringency of land-use regulation: Building heights in US cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 116(C).
    12. Matthew A. Turner & Andrew Haughwout & Wilbert van der Klaauw, 2014. "Land Use Regulation and Welfare," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 82(4), pages 1341-1403, July.
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    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Urban Umami or Urban Appakukan?: The Psychology of Streetscapes
      by Jason Barr in Skynomics Blog on 2020-10-22 12:34:19

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    Cited by:

    1. Remi Jedwab & Jason Barr & Jan K. Brueckner, 2020. "Cities without Skylines: Worldwide Building-Height Gaps and Their Implications," CESifo Working Paper Series 8511, CESifo.
    2. Jessie Handbury, 2020. "Comment on Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Housing," NBER Chapters, in: The Role of Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Economic Growth, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Xiao, Hongyu & Wu, Andy & Kim, Jaeho, 2021. "Commuting and innovation: Are closer inventors more productive?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 121(C).
    4. J. Scott Davis & Kevin X. D. Huang & Ayse Sapci, 2020. "Imperfect substitution in real estate markets and the effect of housing demand on corporate investment," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 20-00002, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
    5. J. Scott Davis & Kevin X. D. Huang & Ayse Sapci, 2020. "Land Price Dynamics and Macroeconomic Fluctuations with Imperfect Substitution in Real Estate Markets," Globalization Institute Working Papers 401, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, revised 18 May 2021.
    6. Caitlin S. Gorback & Benjamin J. Keys, 2020. "Global Capital and Local Assets: House Prices, Quantities, and Elasticities," NBER Working Papers 27370, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • R1 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics
    • R14 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Land Use Patterns
    • R31 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - Housing Supply and Markets
    • R52 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Land Use and Other Regulations

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