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Exchange-Rate Management Viewed as Tax Policies

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  • Jacob A. Frenkel
  • Assaf Razin

Abstract

The paper develops an analytical framework which demonstrates that the various forms of exchange-rate management are equivalent to corresponding tax policies. To highlight the salient issues, we consider two specific categories of exchange-rate policies. The first is a dual exchange-rate regime, which separates exchange rates for commercial and for financial transactions, and the second is a unified exchange-rate system in which the country unilaterally pegs its exchange rate at the same rate for all transactions. We show that the dual exchange rate policies can be usefully cast as distortionary taxes on international borrowing, and a unified pegged exchange-rate policies can be usefully cast as lump-sum tax cum subsidy policies. The equivalence between the various characteristics of exchange-rate management and tax management suggests that exchange-rate analysis could be usefully incorporated into the broader framework of the analysis of fiscal policies. A two-country model of the world economy is used to demonstrate the international transmission mechanism of these policies.

Suggested Citation

  • Jacob A. Frenkel & Assaf Razin, 1988. "Exchange-Rate Management Viewed as Tax Policies," NBER Working Papers 2653, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:2653
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    1. Stockman, Alan C, 1980. "A Theory of Exchange Rate Determination," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(4), pages 673-698, August.
    2. Joshua Aizenman, 1986. "On the Complementarity of Commercial Policy, Capital Controls, and Inflation Tax," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 19(1), pages 114-133, February.
    3. Obstfeld, Maurice, 1986. "Capital controls, the dual exchange rate, and devaluation," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 1-20, February.
    4. Stockman, Alan C & Hernandez D, Alejandro, 1988. "Exchange Controls, Capital Controls, and International Financial Markets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(3), pages 362-374, June.
    5. Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1986. "Special Exchange Rates for Capital Account Transactions," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 1(1), pages 3-33, September.
    6. Greenwood, Jeremy, 1983. "Expectations, the exchange rate, and the current account," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 543-569, November.
    7. Frenkel, Jacob A & Razin, Assaf, 1986. "Fiscal Policies in the World Economy," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(3), pages 564-594, June.
    8. Helpman, Elhanan, 1981. "An Exploration in the Theory of Exchange-Rate Regimes," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(5), pages 865-890, October.
    9. Adams, Charles & Greenwood, Jeremy, 1985. "Dual exchange rate systems and capital controls: An investigation," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1-2), pages 43-63, February.
    10. Persson, Torsten, 1984. "Real transfers in fixed exchange rate systems and the international adjustment mechanism," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 349-369, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Huizinga, Harry & Schaling, Eric & van der Windt, Peter C, 2007. "Capital Controls and Foreign Investor Subsidies Implicit in South Africa's Dual Exchange Rate System," CEPR Discussion Papers 6347, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Huizinga, Harry, 1997. "Real exchange rate misalignment and redistribution," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 259-277, February.
    3. Canzoneri, M. & Rogers, C., 1989. "Is the European Community an Optimal Currency Area? : Optimal Tax Smoothing versus the Cost of Multiple Currencies," Discussion Paper 1989-23, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    4. Huizinga, H.P., 1996. "The Taxation Implicit in Two-Tiered Exchange Rate Systems," Discussion Paper 1996-100, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    5. Paul Reding & Jean-Marie Viaene, 1995. "Capital controls and international trade finance in a dual exchange rate regime: The Belgian experience post-mortem," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 131(1), pages 1-27, March.
    6. B. Gabriela Mundaca & Jon Strand, 2005. "A risk allocation approach to optimal exchange rate policy," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 57(3), pages 398-421, July.
    7. Jean-Paul Azam & Cécile Daubrée, 1991. "La détermination des taux de change parallèles en Afrique : modèle macro-économique et test économétrique (Nigeria, Zaïre, Ghana)," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 97(1), pages 105-115.

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