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Landmines and Spatial Development

Author

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  • Giorgio Chiovelli
  • Stelios Michalopoulos
  • Elias Papaioannou

Abstract

Landmine contamination affects the lives of millions in many conflict-ridden countries long after the cessation of hostilities. Yet, little research exists on its impact on post-conflict recovery. In this study, we explore the economic consequences of landmine clearance in Mozambique, the only country that has moved from "heavily-contaminated" in 1992 to "mine-free" status in 2015. First, we compile a dataset detailing the evolution of clearance, collecting thousands of reports from the numerous demining actors. Second, we exploit the timing of demining to assess its impact on local economic activity, as reflected in satellite images of light density at night. The analysis reveals a moderate positive association that masks sizeable heterogeneity. Economic activity responds strongly to clearance of the transportation network, trade hubs, and more populous areas, while the demining-development association is weak in rural areas of low population density. Third, recognizing that landmine removal recon figured the accessibility to the transportation infrastructure, we apply a "market-access" approach to quantify both its direct and indirect effects. The market-access estimates reveal substantial improvements on aggregate economic activity. The market-access benefits of demining are also present in localities without any contamination. Fourth, counterfactual policy simulations project considerable gains had the fragmented process of clearance in Mozambique been centrally coordinated, prioritizing clearance of the colonial transportation routes.

Suggested Citation

  • Giorgio Chiovelli & Stelios Michalopoulos & Elias Papaioannou, 2018. "Landmines and Spatial Development," NBER Working Papers 24758, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:24758
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    1. Nguyen, Cuong & Tran, Tuyen & Vu, Huong, 2021. "The Long-Term Effects of War on Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Development: Evidence from Vietnam," MPRA Paper 111891, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Matteo Fiorini & Marco Sanfilippo, 2022. "Roads and Jobs in Ethiopia [When Should You Adjust Standard Errors for Clustering?”]," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 36(4), pages 999-1020.
    3. Rémi Jedwab & Adam Storeygard, 2022. "The Average and Heterogeneous Effects of Transportation Investments: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa 1960–2010 [Review of the Implementation Status of the Trans African Highways and the Missing Li," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 20(1), pages 1-38.
    4. Prem, Mounu & Purroy, Miguel E & Vargas, Juan F., 2021. "Landmines: The Local Effects of Demining," Working papers 86, Red Investigadores de Economía.
    5. Perilla, Sergio & Prem, Mounu & Purroy, Miguel E. & Vargas, Juan F., 2021. "How Peace Saves Lives? Evidence from Colombia," SocArXiv cxuwg, Center for Open Science.
    6. Takasaki, Yoshito, 2020. "Impacts of disability on poverty: Quasi-experimental evidence from landmine amputees in Cambodia," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 180(C), pages 85-107.
    7. Yoshito Takasaki, 2019. "Disability and Poverty: Landmine Amputees in Cambodia," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-1118, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.

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    JEL classification:

    • N17 - Economic History - - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations - - - Africa; Oceania
    • O10 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General
    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • R0 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General

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