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Virtual Borders: Online Nominal Rigidities and International Market Segmentation

  • Jean Boivin
  • Robert Clark
  • Nicolas Vincent

Do prices respond to macro shocks? Does the mere presence of international frontiers hinder trade? We revisit these questions by studying a dataset of online book prices for a number of US and Canadian retailers. We believe our dataset is well suited to this task for a number of reasons: (1) data for multiple retailers are available; (2) the products sold are identical across retailers; (3) the sample spans a period of large fluctuations in the bilateral exchange rate; (4) the nature of the industry is such that physical distance is irrelevant beyond shipping costs which are observable; (5) nominal frictions in the form of menu costs are arguably minimal; and (6) proxies for sales are available for most retailers. Given the unique nature of our dataset, the first objective of the paper is to document the degree of price rigidity and price dispersion. Our main findings are: online book prices display significant stickiness; there is a large degree of heterogeneity across retailers in terms of price rigidity and pricing strategy; price dispersion is high both within and across borders. Also, price levels do not appear to respond to exchange rate fluctuations. Building on the predictions from a simple two-country, multi-firm model and by exploiting information contained both in prices and quantities, we show that market segmentation is probably behind this disconnect .

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 15642.

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Date of creation: Jan 2010
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:15642
Note: EFG IFM ME
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  10. Peter J. Klenow & Oleksiy Kryvtsov, 2008. "State-Dependent or Time-Dependent Pricing: Does It Matter for Recent U.S. Inflation?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 123(3), pages 863-904, August.
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  12. Yuriy Gorodnichenko & Linda L. Tesar, 2009. "Border Effect or Country Effect? Seattle May Not Be So Far from Vancouver After All," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(1), pages 219-41, January.
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  15. Michael R. Baye & John Morgan & Patrick Scholten, 2004. "Price Dispersion In The Small And In The Large: Evidence From An Internet Price Comparison Site," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(4), pages 463-496, December.
  16. Eichenbaum, Martin & Jaimovich, Nir & Rebelo, Sérgio, 2008. "Reference Prices and Nominal Rigidities," CEPR Discussion Papers 6709, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  17. Emi Nakamura & Jón Steinsson, 2008. "Five Facts about Prices: A Reevaluation of Menu Cost Models," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 123(4), pages 1415-1464, November.
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  22. Sims, Christopher A., 2003. "Implications of rational inattention," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 665-690, April.
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