Pay Differences Between Women's and Men's Jobs: The Empirical Foundations of Comparable Worth Legislation
Civil rights legislation of the 1960s made it illegal foran employer to pay men and women on different bases for the same work or to discriminate against women in hiring, job assignment, or promotion. Two decades later, however, the ratio of women's to men's earnings has shown little upward movement. Furthermore, major sex differences in occupational distribution persist with predominantly female jobs typically paying less than predominantly male jobs. This negative relationship between wage rates and femaleness of occupatiop has stimulated efforts, in both the judicial and political arenas, to establish "comparable worth" procedures for setting wage rates.This paper etimates the relationship between wages and femaleness of occupation and finds that it is indeed negative even after controlling for relevant worker and job characteristics. The magnitude of the relationship, however, implies a surprisingly small effect for a comprehensive comparable worth policy. The estimates indicate that, even if comparable worth succeeded in eliminating this negative relationship, the disparity between mean male and female wages would be reduced by well under ten percent of its current magnitude.
|Date of creation:||Sep 1984|
|Publication status:||published as Johnson, George and Gary Solon. f"Estimates of the Direct Effects of Comparable Worth Policy," American Economic Review, Vol. 76, No. 5, Dec. 1986, pp 1117-1125.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.|
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- Grant, James H & Hamermesh, Daniel S, 1981.
"Labor Market Competition among Youths, White Women and Others,"
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- Ronald G. Ehrenberg & Robert S. Smith, 1984. "Comparable Worth in the Public Sector," NBER Working Papers 1471, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Welch, Finis, 1974. "Minimum Wage Legislation in the United States," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 12(3), pages 285-318, September.
- Charles Brown, 1980. "Equalizing Differences in the Labor Market," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 94(1), pages 113-134.
- Mark R. Killingsworth, 1987. "Heterogeneous Preferences, Compensating Wage Differentials, and Comparable Worth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 102(4), pages 727-742. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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