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The Role of Guarantees in Bank Lending

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  • Pozzolo, Alberto Franco

Abstract

Guarantees play an important role in debt contracts. They alter the risk for the lender, transform borrowers' incentives and, possibly, modify the equilibrium allocation of financial resources. This paper studies the role of guarantees on bank loans, using a sample of over 50,000 individual lines of credit granted by Italian banks. Two empirical models are used. The first directly verifies the relationship between ex-ante publicly available information on borrowers' default riskiness and the presence of guarantees on their bank loans; the second compares the interest rates charged on secured and unsecured loans made by different banks to the same borrower, thus perfectly controlling for idiosyncratic riskiness and singling out the direct effect of the presence of guarantees on credit risk. The empirical results show that real guarantees (physical assets or equities that the lender can sell if the borrower defaults), which are often internal, are mainly used to provide a priority to some creditors. Personal guarantees (contractual obligations of third parties to make payments in case of default, e.g. suretyships), which can only be external, are used instead as incentive devices against moral hazard problems. Controlling for borrowers' characteristics, both real and personal guarantees reduce ex-ante credit risk.

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  • Pozzolo, Alberto Franco, 2004. "The Role of Guarantees in Bank Lending," Economics & Statistics Discussion Papers esdp04021, University of Molise, Dept. EGSeI.
  • Handle: RePEc:mol:ecsdps:esdp04021
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    Cited by:

    1. Arito Ono & Iichiro Uesugi, 2009. "Role of Collateral and Personal Guarantees in Relationship Lending: Evidence from Japan's SME Loan Market," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(5), pages 935-960, August.
    2. Mayordomo, Sergio & Moreno, Antonio & Ongena, Steven & Rodríguez-Moreno, María, 2021. "Bank capital requirements, loan guarantees and firm performance," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 45(C).
    3. Salvatore Zecchini & Marco Ventura, 2009. "The impact of public guarantees on credit to SMEs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 191-206, February.
    4. Giorgio Calcagnini & Fabio Farabullini & Germana Giombini, 2012. "The impact of the recent financial crisis on bank loan interest rates and guarantees," Working Papers 1202, University of Urbino Carlo Bo, Department of Economics, Society & Politics - Scientific Committee - L. Stefanini & G. Travaglini, revised 2012.
    5. Busetta, Giovanni & Zazzaro, Alberto, 2012. "Mutual loan-guarantee societies in monopolistic credit markets with adverse selection," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 15-24.
    6. Giorgio Calcagnini & Fabio Farabullini & Germana Giombini, 2009. "Loans, Interest Rates and Guarantees: Is There a Link?," Working Papers 0904, University of Urbino Carlo Bo, Department of Economics, Society & Politics - Scientific Committee - L. Stefanini & G. Travaglini, revised 2009.
    7. Columba, Francesco & Leonardo, Gambacorta & Paolo Emilio, Mistrulli, 2008. "Firms as monitor of other firms: mutual guarantee institutions and SME finance," MPRA Paper 14032, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Columba, Francesco & Gambacorta, Leonardo & Mistrulli, Paolo Emilio, 2010. "Mutual guarantee institutions and small business finance," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 45-54, April.
    9. Bellucci, Andrea & Borisov, Alexander & Giombini, Germana & Zazzaro, Alberto, 2019. "Collateralization and distance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 205-217.
    10. Di Giuli, Alberta & Caselli, Stefano & Gatti, Stefano, 2011. "Are small family firms financially sophisticated?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 2931-2944, November.
    11. Djedidi-Kooli, Salima, 2009. "L’accès au financement des PME en France : quel rôle joué par la structure du système bancaire ?," Economics Thesis from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University, number 123456789/8354 edited by Etner, François, November.
    12. WATANABE Wako, 2007. "How Do Relationship Lenders Price Loans to Small Firms?: "Hold-Up" Costs, Transparency, and Private and Public Security," Discussion papers 07058, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    13. Tumer-Alkan, G., 2008. "Essays on banking," Other publications TiSEM 8d5ec521-4702-4e75-bc79-a, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    14. Ono, Arito & Sakai, Koji & Uesugi, Iichiro, 2012. "The effects of collateral on firm performance," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 84-109.
    15. Amedeo Argentiero, 2009. "Some New Evidence on the Role of Collateral: Lazy Banks or Diligent Banks?," ISAE Working Papers 113, ISTAT - Italian National Institute of Statistics - (Rome, ITALY).
    16. Tseng-Chung Tang, 2008. "An analysis of bank stock price reaction to distressed borrowers: Taiwanese evidence," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(7), pages 1159-1176, June.
    17. Li-Chiu Chi, 2008. "Reorganisation resolutions and bank lending relationships in Taiwan," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(11), pages 1817-1835, September.
    18. Tlili, Rim, 2012. "Comment justifier la multibancarité au sein des PME ?," Economics Thesis from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University, number 123456789/10919 edited by Etner, François, November.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bank loans; collateral; guarantee;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

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