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Analyzing R&D Activities of Foreign Enterprises in Emerging Economies. Lessons from Turkey

Author

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  • M. Teoman Pamukçu

    () (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University)

  • Erkan Erdil

    () (Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University)

Abstract

Emerging economies have played an important role in the internationalization of R&D activities at least since the 1990s. Turkey, an emerging economy and at same time an accession country to the European Union which signed a Customs Union Agreement with the EU already in 1995, is no exception. In-depth face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with R&D directors of 26 multinational companies operating in Turkey –with headquarters located in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Switzerlandand USA- in the informatics, automotive, electronics and pharmaceutical industries. Data and qualitative information obtained through these interviews are then used to analyze those factors theory points to as being major determinants of foreign R&D in emerging economies. The emphasis is on the (i) motivations of foreign enterprises for launching new R&D activities or extending existing ones (ii) restrictions of different kind they encounter in doing so (iii) their reactions with respect to FDI promotion policies and public R&D support incentives implemented by Turkish policy makers, and (iv) advantages/disadvantages of Turkish economy as an R&D location in comparison with other emerging economies. A number of policy recommendations for attracting more foreign R&D in Turkey and integrating them with the Turkish national innovation system are advanced.

Suggested Citation

  • M. Teoman Pamukçu & Erkan Erdil, 2011. "Analyzing R&D Activities of Foreign Enterprises in Emerging Economies. Lessons from Turkey," STPS Working Papers 1104, STPS - Science and Technology Policy Studies Center, Middle East Technical University, revised Dec 2011.
  • Handle: RePEc:met:stpswp:1104
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    File URL: http://www.stps.metu.edu.tr/sites/stps.metu.edu.tr/files/1104_0.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2011
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kuemmerle, Walter, 1999. "Foreign direct investment in industrial research in the pharmaceutical and electronics industries--results from a survey of multinational firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(2-3), pages 179-193, March.
    2. von Zedtwitz, Maximilian & Gassmann, Oliver, 2002. "Market versus technology drive in R&D internationalization: four different patterns of managing research and development," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 569-588, May.
    3. Elif Kalayci & Mehmet Teoman Pamukçu, 2011. "Analysis of Foreign Ownership, R&D and Spillovers in Developing Countries: Evidence from Turkey," Working Papers 642, Economic Research Forum, revised 10 Jan 2011.
    4. Özçelik, Emre & Taymaz, Erol, 2008. "R&D support programs in developing countries: The Turkish experience," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 258-275, March.
    5. Rajneesh Narula & Antonello Zanfei, 2003. "Globalisation of Innovation The Role of Multinational Enterprises," DRUID Working Papers 03-15, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
    6. Pari Patel & Keith Pavitt, 1991. "Large Firms in the Production of the World’s Technology: An Important Case of “Non-Globalisation”," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 22(1), pages 1-21, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hulya Ulku & Mehmet Pamukcu, 2015. "The impact of R&D and knowledge diffusion on the productivity of manufacturing firms in Turkey," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 44(1), pages 79-95, August.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Research and development (R&D); internationalization of R&D; R&D offshoring; multinational companies; national innovation systems; case studies; semi-structured interviews;

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