The influence of academics as insidernongovernmental actors in the Post-Kyoto Protocol Climate Change Negotiations: a matter of timing, network and policyentrepreneurial capabilities
Nongovernmental actors influence negotiations with insider or outsider strategies. Academics are valued by government delegates for the neutrality and expertise they can provide as policy advisors to facilitate negotiations. This article examines the influence of academics on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations in 2009 and concludes that influence is comparable across issues, but heterogeneous. For academics, influence depends on four qualitatively measurable indicators based on the prerequisite of access to the negotiations and knowledge regarding the current information needs: (1) when in the negotiation cycle academics provide input with the highest influence before the national position is formed, (2) on their personal capabilities like expertise and reputation, (3) on their policy-entrepreneurial activities and (4) their personal network to government delegates and especially the ability to become insiders with access to negotiation text.
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