IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/koc/wpaper/1906.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Returns to Investment in Education: The Case of Turkey

Author

Listed:
  • Harry Anthony Patrinos

    (The World Bank)

  • George Psacharopoulos

    (Georgetown University)

  • Aysit Tansel

    (Middle East Technical University (METU); IZA Institute of Labor Economics; Economic Research Forum (ERF))

Abstract

This paper estimates private and social returns to investment in education in Turkey, using the 2017 Household Labor Force Survey and alternative methodologies. The analysis uses the 1997 education reform of increasing compulsory education by three years as an instrument. This results in a private rate of return on the order of 16 percent for higher education and a social return of 10 percent. Using the number of children younger than age 15 in the household as an exclusion restriction, the analysis finds that returns to education for females are higher than those for males. Contrary to many findings in other countries, private returns to those working in the public sector are higher than those in the private sector, and private returns to those who followed the vocational track in secondary education are higher than those in the general academic track. The paper discusses the policy implications of the findings.

Suggested Citation

  • Harry Anthony Patrinos & George Psacharopoulos & Aysit Tansel, 2019. "Returns to Investment in Education: The Case of Turkey," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 1906, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.
  • Handle: RePEc:koc:wpaper:1906
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://eaf.ku.edu.tr/sites/eaf.ku.edu.tr/files/erf_wp_1906.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Aysit Tansel & Fatma Bircan Bodur, 2012. "Wage Inequality and Returns to Education in Turkey: A Quantile Regression Analysis," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(1), pages 107-121, February.
    2. Aysit Tansel & Elif Oznur Acar, 2016. "The Formal/Informal Employment Earnings Gap: Evidence from Turkey," Research on Economic Inequality, in: Inequality after the 20th Century: Papers from the Sixth ECINEQ Meeting, volume 24, pages 121-154, Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
    3. World Bank, 2005. "Turkey—Education Sector Study : Sustainable Pathways to an Effective, Equitable and Efficient Education System for Preschool through Secondary School Education," World Bank Publications - Reports 8393, The World Bank Group.
    4. Melvin Stephens Jr. & Dou-Yan Yang, 2014. "Compulsory Education and the Benefits of Schooling," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(6), pages 1777-1792, June.
    5. Di Paolo, Antonio & Tansel, Aysit, 2017. "Analyzing Wage Differentials by Fields of Study: Evidence from Turkey," GLO Discussion Paper Series 91, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    6. Christopher Dougherty, 2005. "Why Are the Returns to Schooling Higher for Women than for Men?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 40(4), pages 969-988.
    7. Harry Patrinos & Chris Sakellariou, 2005. "Schooling and Labor Market Impacts of a Natural Policy Experiment," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 19(4), pages 705-719, December.
    8. Paul J. Devereux & Robert A. Hart, 2010. "Forced to be Rich? Returns to Compulsory Schooling in Britain," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 120(549), pages 1345-1364, December.
    9. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1, January.
    10. Abdurrahman Aydemir & Murat G. Kirdar, 2017. "Low Wage Returns to Schooling in a Developing Country: Evidence from a Major Policy Reform in Turkey," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 79(6), pages 1046-1086, December.
    11. Montenegro, Claudio E. & Patrinos, Harry Anthony, 2014. "Comparable estimates of returns to schooling around the world," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7020, The World Bank.
    12. Tansel, Avsit, 2005. "Public-Private Employment Choice, Wage Differentials, and Gender in Turkey," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(2), pages 453-477, January.
    13. Tansel, Aysit, 1994. "Wage employment, earnings and returns to schooling for men and women in Turkey," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 305-320.
    14. George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 2018. "Returns to investment in education: a decennial review of the global literature," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(5), pages 445-458, September.
    15. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling and Earnings," NBER Chapters, in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 41-63, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Cygan-Rehm, Kamila, 2018. "Is additional schooling worthless? Revising the zero returns to compulsory schooling in Germany," VfS Annual Conference 2018 (Freiburg, Breisgau): Digital Economy 181528, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    17. Jörn-Steffen Pischke & Till von Wachter, 2008. "Zero Returns to Compulsory Schooling in Germany: Evidence and Interpretation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(3), pages 592-598, August.
    18. World Bank, 2013. "Promoting Excellence in Turkey's Schools," World Bank Publications - Reports 16049, The World Bank Group.
    19. Aysit TANSEL, 2008. "Changing Returns To Education For Men And Women In A Developing Country: Turkey, 1994, 2002-2005," EcoMod2008 23800140, EcoMod.
    20. Martin Huber & Giovanni Mellace, 2014. "Testing exclusion restrictions and additive separability in sample selection models," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 47(1), pages 75-92, August.
    21. Djavad Salehi-Isfahani & Insan Tunali & Ragui Assaad, 2009. "A Comparative Study of Returns to Education of Urban Men in Egypt, Iran, and Turkey," Middle East Development Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(2), pages 145-187, January.
    22. Esther Duflo, 2001. "Schooling and Labor Market Consequences of School Construction in Indonesia: Evidence from an Unusual Policy Experiment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 795-813, September.
    23. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Introduction to "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings"," NBER Chapters, in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 1-4, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    24. Sheng‐Kai Chang, 2011. "Simulation estimation of two‐tiered dynamic panel Tobit models with an application to the labor supply of married women," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(5), pages 854-871, August.
    25. Huzeyfe Torun, 2018. "Compulsory Schooling and Early Labor Market Outcomes in a Middle-Income Country," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 277-305, September.
    26. Djavad Salehi-Isfahani, 2009. "Education and Earnings in The Middle East: A Comparative Study of Returns To Schooling in Egypt, Iran, and Turkey," Working Papers 504, Economic Research Forum, revised Sep 2009.
    27. Maria Fraga O. Martins, 2001. "Parametric and semiparametric estimation of sample selection models: an empirical application to the female labour force in Portugal," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(1), pages 23-39.
    28. Djavad Salehi-Isfahani & Insan Tunali & Ragui Assaad, 2009. "A Comparative Study Of Returns To Education Of Urban Men In Egypt, Iran, And Turkey," Middle East Development Journal (MEDJ), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 1(02), pages 145-187.
    29. Orhan Kara, 2010. "Comparing two approaches to the rate of return to investment in education," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(2), pages 153-165.
    30. Ozturk, Ahmet & Tumen, Semih, 2018. "Education and Labor Market Consequences of Student Protests in Late 1970s and the Subsequent Military Coup in Turkey," IZA Discussion Papers 11733, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Merve Kurt & Erdal Gumus, 2021. "Returns on Investment in Education: Evidence from Turkey by Education Level and by Higher Education Program," Hacienda Pública Española / Review of Public Economics, IEF, vol. 238(3), pages 3-28, September.
    2. Muhammed Refeque & P. Azad, 2022. "How do linguistic and technical skills affect earnings in India?," Indian Economic Review, Springer, vol. 57(1), pages 23-57, June.
    3. Cristina Pita & Ramón J. Torregrosa, 2023. "The Education-Job Satisfaction Paradox in the Public Sector," Public Organization Review, Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 1717-1735, December.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Harry Anthony Patrinos & George Psacharopoulos & Aysit Tansel, 2019. "GLOBALISATION AND GOVERNANCE: Returns to Investment in Education: The Case of Turkey," ERC Working Papers 1903, ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University, revised Mar 2019.
    2. Harry Anthony Patrinos & George Psacharopoulos & Aysit Tansel, 2019. "Returns to Investment in Education: The Case of Turkey," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 1906, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.
    3. Ozturk, Ahmet & Tumen, Semih, 2018. "Education and Labor Market Consequences of Student Protests in Late 1970s and the Subsequent Military Coup in Turkey," IZA Discussion Papers 11733, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    4. Abdurrahman Aydemir & Murat G. Kirdar, 2017. "Low Wage Returns to Schooling in a Developing Country: Evidence from a Major Policy Reform in Turkey," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 79(6), pages 1046-1086, December.
    5. Imed Limam & Abdelwahab Ben Hafaiedh, 2017. "Education, Earnings and Returns to Schooling in Tunisia," Working Papers 1162, Economic Research Forum, revised 12 Jun 2017.
    6. Ragui Assaad & Abdurrahman Aydemir & Meltem Dayioglu & Guray Kirdar, 2016. "Returns to Schooling in Egypt," Working Papers 1000, Economic Research Forum, revised May 2016.
    7. Merve Kurt & Erdal Gumus, 2021. "Returns on Investment in Education: Evidence from Turkey by Education Level and by Higher Education Program," Hacienda Pública Española / Review of Public Economics, IEF, vol. 238(3), pages 3-28, September.
    8. Yubilianto, 2020. "Return to education and financial value of investment in higher education in Indonesia," Journal of Economic Structures, Springer;Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS), vol. 9(1), pages 1-28, December.
    9. Stanislav Avdeev, 2020. "Zero Returns To Higher Education: Evidence From A Natural Experiment," HSE Working papers WP BRP 236/EC/2020, National Research University Higher School of Economics.
    10. Aysit Tansel & Fatma Bircan Bodur, 2012. "Wage Inequality and Returns to Education in Turkey: A Quantile Regression Analysis," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(1), pages 107-121, February.
    11. Ali Reza Oryoie & Atiyeh Vahidmanesh, 2022. "The Rate of Return to Education in Iran," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 13(2), pages 813-829, June.
    12. Kamila Cygan‐Rehm, 2022. "Are there no wage returns to compulsory schooling in Germany? A reassessment," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 37(1), pages 218-223, January.
    13. Chen, Yi & Jiang, Sheng & Zhou, Li-An, 2020. "Estimating returns to education in urban China: Evidence from a natural experiment in schooling reform," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 218-233.
    14. Assaad, Ragui & Aydemir, Abdurrahman B. & Dayioglu-Tayfur, Meltem & Kirdar, Murat Güray, 2023. "Wage Returns to Human Capital Resulting from an Extra Year of Primary School: Evidence from Egypt," IZA Discussion Papers 16037, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    15. Thomas Bolli & Katherine Caves & Maria Esther Oswald-Egg, 2021. "Valuable Experience: How University Internships Affect Graduates’ Income," Research in Higher Education, Springer;Association for Institutional Research, vol. 62(8), pages 1198-1247, December.
    16. Cygan-Rehm, Kamila, 2018. "Is additional schooling worthless? Revising the zero returns to compulsory schooling in Germany," VfS Annual Conference 2018 (Freiburg, Breisgau): Digital Economy 181528, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    17. Mona Said & Fatma El-Hamidi, 2008. "Taking Technical Education Seriously in MENA: Determinants, Labor Market Implications and Policy Lessons," Working Papers 450, Economic Research Forum, revised 09 Jan 2008.
    18. Antonio Paolo & Aysit Tansel, 2019. "English skills, labour market status and earnings of Turkish women," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 46(4), pages 669-690, November.
    19. Fortin, Bernard & Ragued, Safa, 2017. "Does temporary interruption in postsecondary education induce a wage penalty? Evidence from Canada," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 108-122.
    20. Antonio Di Paolo & Aysit Tansel, 2019. "“English skills, labour market status and earnings of Turkish women”," AQR Working Papers 201901, University of Barcelona, Regional Quantitative Analysis Group, revised Jan 2019.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Education; Returns to Education; Turkey.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I26 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Returns to Education
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:koc:wpaper:1906. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sumru Oz (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dekoctr.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.