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Strategic Behavior across Gender: A Comparison of Female and Male Expert Chess Players

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  • Gerdes, Christer

    () (SOFI, Stockholm University)

  • Gränsmark, Patrik

    () (SOFI, Stockholm University)

Abstract

This paper aims to measure differences in risk behavior among expert chess players. The study employs a panel data set on international chess with 1.4 million games recorded over a period of 11 years. The structure of the data set allows us to use individual fixed-effect estimations to control for aspects such as innate ability as well as other characteristics of the players. Most notably, the data contains an objective measure of individual playing strength, the so-called Elo rating. In line with previous research, we find that women are more risk-averse than men. A novel finding is that males choose more aggressive strategies when playing against female opponents even though such strategies reduce their winning probability.

Suggested Citation

  • Gerdes, Christer & Gränsmark, Patrik, 2010. "Strategic Behavior across Gender: A Comparison of Female and Male Expert Chess Players," IZA Discussion Papers 4793, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4793
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Where Women Display Risk Aversion
      by Elaine Schwartz in EconLife on 2016-07-25 17:00:34

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    Cited by:

    1. René Böheim & Mario Lackner, 2013. "Gender and Competition: Evidence from Jumping Competitions," Economics working papers 2013-05, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    2. Gränsmark, Patrik, 2012. "Masters of our time: Impatience and self-control in high-level chess games," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 179-191.
    3. Peter Backus & María Cubel & Matej Guid & Santiago Sánchez-Pages & Enrique Lopez Manas, 2016. "Gender, competition and performance:Evidence from real tournaments," Working Papers 2016/27, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
    4. repec:spr:grdene:v:24:y:2015:i:4:d:10.1007_s10726-014-9409-3 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Dreber, Anna & Gerdes, Christer & Gränsmark, Patrik, 2013. "Beauty queens and battling knights: Risk taking and attractiveness in chess," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 1-18.
    6. Linnemer, Laurent & Visser, Michael, 2016. "Self-selection in tournaments: The case of chess players," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 126(PA), pages 213-234.
    7. Irene van Staveren, 2014. "The Lehman Sisters hypothesis," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 38(5), pages 995-1014.
    8. Frank, Björn & Krabel, Stefan, 2013. "Gens una sumus?!—Or does political ideology affect experts’ esthetic judgment of chess games?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 66-78.
    9. Gränsmark, Patrik, 2010. "A Rib Less Makes you Consistent but Impatient: A Gender Comparison of Expert Chess Players," Working Paper Series 5/2010, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research.
    10. Koellinger, Ph.D. & Block, J.H., 2012. "Attractive Supervisors: How Does the Gender of the Supervisor Influence the Performance of the Supervisees?," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2012-003-STR, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    11. Frick, Bernd, 2011. "Gender differences in competitiveness: Empirical evidence from professional distance running," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 389-398, June.
    12. Lotito, Gianna & Migheli, Matteo & Ortona, Guido, 2011. "An experimental inquiry into the nature of relational goods," POLIS Working Papers 160, Institute of Public Policy and Public Choice - POLIS.
    13. Gränsmark, Patrik, 2010. "Social Screening and Cooperation Among Expert Chess Players," Working Paper Series 4/2010, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research.
    14. René Böheim & Christoph Freudenthaler & Mario Lackner, 2016. "Gender Differences in Risk-Taking: Evidence from Professional Basketball," Economics working papers 2016-07, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    15. Lindquist, Gabriella Sjögren & Säve-Söderbergh, Jenny, 2011. ""Girls will be Girls", especially among Boys: Risk-taking in the "Daily Double" on Jeopardy," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 112(2), pages 158-160, August.
    16. Gerdes, Christer & Gränsmark, Patrik, 2010. "Strategic behavior across gender: A comparison of female and male expert chess players," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 766-775, October.
    17. Luiza Antonie & Miana Plesca & Jennifer Teng, 2016. "Heterogeneity in the Gender Wage Gap in Canada," Working Papers 1603, University of Guelph, Department of Economics and Finance.
    18. van Staveren, I.P., 2012. "The Lehman Sisters Hypothesis: an exploration of literature and bankers," ISS Working Papers - General Series 545, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
    19. Bertoni, Marco & Brunello, Giorgio & Rocco, Lorenzo, 2015. "Selection and the age – productivity profile. Evidence from chess players," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 45-58.
    20. Gränsmark, Patrik, 2012. "Masters of Our Time: Impatience and Self-control in High-level Chess Games," Working Paper Series 2/2012, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    culture; gender; competitiveness; risk aversion; mixed-sex competition;

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J70 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - General
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
    • D03 - Microeconomics - - General - - - Behavioral Microeconomics: Underlying Principles

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