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Oil Price Shock: A Nonlinear Approach


  • Rebeca Jiménez-Rodríguez

    (Universidad de Alicante)


Nowadays, the importance of crude oil goes beyond simple economic aspects and affects social life in general. As such, it is imperative that we should know what the relationship between GDP growth and oil price changes is like. This paper presents evidence of a nonlinear relationship between the two things. We also argue that this non-linearity is not merely due to the use of data from the mid-1980s onwards, as most authors, so far, seem to believe. In fact, we find the existence of non-linearity with the use of data earlier than 1984, and even before 1977. Furthermore, we question that the nonlinear transformations of oil prices proposed in the Literature are able to reflect such non-linearity. We therefore use a non-linear function that relates GDP growth to oil prices, and estimate this function by means of kernel methods, avoiding any assumptions about its form. This kernel estimation improves on the linear estimation, and also improves on both Hamilton?s (2001b) estimation and those of the nonlinear transformations. Hoy día la importancia del petróleo sobrepasa los aspectos meramenteeconómicos, afectando de manera generalizada a nuestra vida social. Por ello, es muyimportante saber cuál es la relación existente entre el crecimiento del PIB y los cambiosen el precio del petróleo. Este artículo presenta evidencia de la existencia de unarelación no-lineal entre ambos. Esta no-linealidad se debe no solamente al uso de datosdesde mitad de los años ochenta, como la mayoría de los autores parecen creer. Dehecho, se puede encontrar la existencia de no-linealidad con el uso de datos anteriores a1984, e incluso anteriores a 1977. Este artículo adicionalmente cuestiona que lastransformaciones no-lineales propuestas en la literatura sean capaces de capturar dichano-linealidad. Por todo ello, se utiliza una función no-lineal que relaciona el crecimientodel PIB con el precio del petróleo, estimándola a través de métodos ¿kernel¿, evitandoasí cualquier supuesto sobre su forma. Esta estimación ¿kernel¿ mejora la estimaciónlineal, así como aquellas derivadas de las transformaciones no-lineales y aquellapropuesta por Hamilton (2001b).

Suggested Citation

  • Rebeca Jiménez-Rodríguez, 2002. "Oil Price Shock: A Nonlinear Approach," Working Papers. Serie EC 2002-32, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  • Handle: RePEc:ivi:wpasec:2002-32

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hamilton, James D & Herrera, Ana Maria, 2004. "Oil Shocks and Aggregate Macroeconomic Behavior: The Role of Monetary Policy: Comment," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(2), pages 265-286, April.
    2. Hansen, Bruce E., 2000. "Testing for structural change in conditional models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 93-115, July.
    3. Andrews, Donald W K & Ploberger, Werner, 1994. "Optimal Tests When a Nuisance Parameter Is Present Only under the Alternative," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(6), pages 1383-1414, November.
    4. Matthew Shapiro & Mark Watson, 1988. "Sources of Business Cycles Fluctuations," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1988, Volume 3, pages 111-156 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Andrews, Donald W K, 1993. "Tests for Parameter Instability and Structural Change with Unknown Change Point," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 821-856, July.
    6. Hooker, Mark A., 1996. "This is what happened to the oil price-macroeconomy relationship: Reply," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 221-222, October.
    7. Sims, Christopher A, 1980. "Macroeconomics and Reality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(1), pages 1-48, January.
    8. Lee, Tae-Hwy & White, Halbert & Granger, Clive W. J., 1993. "Testing for neglected nonlinearity in time series models : A comparison of neural network methods and alternative tests," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 56(3), pages 269-290, April.
    9. Burbidge, John & Harrison, Alan, 1984. "Testing for the Effects of Oil-Price Rises Using Vector Autoregressions," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 25(2), pages 459-484, June.
    10. Kiseok Lee & Shawn Ni & Ronald A. Ratti, 1995. "Oil Shocks and the Macroeconomy: The Role of Price Variability," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 39-56.
    11. Sadorsky, Perry, 1999. "Oil price shocks and stock market activity," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 449-469, October.
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