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Czy w Polsce zachodzi polaryzacja ekonomiczna?

Author

Listed:
  • Tomasz Panek

    (Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics)

Abstract

W ostatnich latach przedmiot wielu badañ stanowi analiza wp³ywu wzrostu ekonomicznego i nierównoœci dochodowych na polaryzacjê rozk³adu dochodów oraz zmiany frakcji œrodkowej klasy dochodowej, czyli szukanie odpowiedzi na pytanie czy proces polaryzacji/konwergencji rozk³adu dochodów w tym okresie prowadzi³ w efekcie do polaryzacji/konwergencji ekonomicznej. Poprzez polaryzacjê ekonomiczn¹ rozumiemy tym samym tak¹ polaryzacjê rozk³adu dochodów, która prowadzi do zmniejszania siê frakcji jednostek nale¿¹cych do œrodkowej klasy dochodowej przy jednoczesnym wzroœcie udzia³u jednostek nale¿¹cych do klasy niskiej i wysokiej. Natomiast konwergencja ekonomiczna oznacza konwergencjê rozk³adu dochodów skutkuj¹c¹ zwiêkszeniem siê frakcji œrodkowej klasy dochodowej. Jednym z podstawowych podejœæ do opisu polaryzacji stanowi podejœcie parametryczne, w którym do oceny zmian polaryzacji stosuje siê mierniki iloœciowe zwane indeksami polaryzacji. Indeksy polaryzacji funkcjonuj¹ce w literaturze przedmiotu nie pozwalaj¹ jednak na ocenê stopnia polaryzacji (konwergencji) ekonomicznej w œcis³ym znaczeniu, tzn. takiej polaryzacji (konwergencji), która prowadzi do zanikania (wzrostu) œrodkowejklasy dochodowej. W opracowaniu zaproponowano now¹ klasê cz¹stkowych indeksów polaryzacji Morris-Bernhardt-Handcock (1994), które pozwalaj¹ na wszechstronn¹ ocenê wp³ywu zmian rozk³adu dochodów (jego polaryzacji lub konwergencji) na zmiany frakcji œrodkowejklasy dochodowej. Nastêpnie, wykorzystuj¹c dane z badania Diagnoza Spo³eczna, zweryfikowano hipotezê czy zmiany rozk³adów dochodów gospodarstw domowych w Polsce w latach 2005-2015 doprowadzi³y do ich polaryzacji czy te¿ konwergencji ekonomicznej. Wyniki przeporwadzonych analiz wskazuj¹, ¿e wzrostowi dochodów realnych gospodarstw domowych w tym okresie towarzyszy³o zwiêkszenie siê frakcji œrodkowej grupy dochodowej gospodarstw domowych.

Suggested Citation

  • Tomasz Panek, 2017. "Czy w Polsce zachodzi polaryzacja ekonomiczna?," Working Papers 79, Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:isd:wpaper:79
    as

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    polaryzacja ekonomiczna; indeksy polaryzacji; zanikanie klasy œrodkowej.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being

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