Out-of-pocket expenditures for pharmaceuticals: Lessons from the Austrian household budget survey
BACKGROUND: Paying pharmaceuticals out-of-pocket is an important source of financing pharmaceutical consumption. Only limited empirical knowledge is available on the determinants of these expenditures. OBJECTIVES: In this paper we analyze which characteristics of private households influence out-of-pocket pharmaceutical expenditure (OOPPE) in Austria. DESIGN & METHODS: We use cross-sectional information on OOPPE and on household characteristics provided by the Austrian household budget survey 2009/10. We split pharmaceutical expenditures into the two components prescription fees and over-the-counter (OTC) expenditures. To adjust for the specific characteristics of the data we compare different econometric approaches: two-part model, hurdle model, generalized linear model, zero-inflated negative binomial regression model. FINDINGS: The finally selected econometric approaches give a quite consistent picture. The probability of expenditures of both types is strongly influenced by the household structure. It increases with age, doctoral visits and the presence of a female householder. The education level and income only increase the probability of OTC-pharmaceuticals. The level of OTC-expenditures remains widely unexplained while the household structure and age influences the expenditures for prescription fees. Insurance characteristics of private households either private or public play a minor role in explaining the expenditure levels in all specifications. This refers to a homogenous and comprehensive provision of pharmaceuticals in the public part of the Austrian health care system. CONCLUSIONS: The paper gives useful insights into the determinants of pharmaceutical expenditures of private households and supplements the previous research which focuses on the individual level.
|Date of creation:||Jan 2015|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Universitätsstraße 15, A - 6020 Innsbruck|
Web page: http://www.uibk.ac.at/fakultaeten/volkswirtschaft_und_statistik/index.html.en
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ulf- G. Gerdtham, 1997.
"Equity in Health Care Utilization: Further Tests Based on Hurdle Models and Swedish Micro Data,"
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 6(3), pages 303-319.
- Gerdtham, Ulf-G., 1996. "Equity in Health Care Utilisation: Further Tests Based on Hurdle models and Swedish Micro Data," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 116, Stockholm School of Economics.
- Manos Matsaganis & Theodore Mitrakos & Panos Tsakloglou, 2009. "Modelling health expenditure at the household level in Greece," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 10(3), pages 329-336, July.
- Joan Costa-Font & Panos Kanavos & Joan Rovira, 2007. "Determinants of out-of-pocket pharmaceutical expenditure and access to drugs in Catalonia," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(5), pages 541-551.
- Marcel Bilger & Jean-Paul Chaze, 2008. "What Drives Individual Health Expenditure in Switzerland?," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 144(III), pages 337-358, September.
- Deb, Partha & Trivedi, Pravin K, 1997. "Demand for Medical Care by the Elderly: A Finite Mixture Approach," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(3), pages 313-336, May-June.
- Glenn Jones & Elizabeth Savage & Kees Van Gool, 2008. "The Distribution of Household Health Expenditures in Australia," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 84(s1), pages 99-114, September.
- Winfried Pohlmeier & Volker Ulrich, 1995. "An Econometric Model of the Two-Part Decisionmaking Process in the Demand for Health Care," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(2), pages 339-361.
- Partha Deb & Ann M. Holmes, 2000. "Estimates of use and costs of behavioural health care: a comparison of standard and finite mixture models," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 9(6), pages 475-489. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:inn:wpaper:2015-01. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Janette Walde)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.