Creditor-Focused Corporate Governance: Evidence from Mergers and Acquisitions in Japan
Mergers in Japan have the dubious distinction of not creating wealth for shareholders of target firms, in sharp contrast to much of the rest of the world. Using a sample of 91 mergers from 1982 through 2003 we document several distinctive features of the merger market in Japan: mergers tend to be countercyclical and often orchestrated by a common main bank. Overall our results point to a market for corporate control that is distinctly less shareholder-focused than that in the U.S., and one where creditors play an important, perhaps dominant, role in corporate governance.
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