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Intersections of Immigrant status and Gender in the Swedish Entrepreneurial Landscape


  • Hedberg, Charlotta

    () (Stockholm University Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS)


Labour markets in welfare states are structured along the lines of gender and immigrant & minority statuses. This paper brings novel insights into the issue of ethnic entrepreneurship as a means of sustainable inclusion of immigrants into the labour market by adding a gender dimension. Based on unique longitudinal data, the paper analyses the division of labour and the work incomes of female immigrant entrepreneurs in contrast with male immigrants and native-born Swedes. The results indicate that the division of labour is structured along the lines of both gender and immigrant status. At first glance, a gender perspective on ethnic entrepreneurship acknowledges persistent inequalities in the labour market. Analysis of entrepreneurship within niches such as the health care sector, however, indicates greater complexity in the entrepreneurial landscape. The paper identifies implications of a nuanced analysis of entrepreneurial research, which recognises diversity along the axes of both immigrant status and gender. Entrepreneurial processes can lead to both exclusion and inclusion of minority groups in the labour market, depending on the sector concerned.

Suggested Citation

  • Hedberg, Charlotta, 2009. "Intersections of Immigrant status and Gender in the Swedish Entrepreneurial Landscape," SULCIS Working Papers 2009:8, Stockholm University, Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:sulcis:2009_008

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. William Bridges, 2003. "Rethinking gender segregation and gender inequality: Measures and meanings," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 40(3), pages 543-568, August.
    2. Tüzin Baycan-Levent & Enno Masurel & Peter Nijkamp, 2003. "Gender Differences in Ethnic Entrepreneurship," ERSA conference papers ersa03p499, European Regional Science Association.
    3. Richard Wright, 2000. "The Ethnic and Gender Division of Labor Compared Among Immigrants to Los Angeles," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(3), pages 567-582, September.
    4. Sako Musterd & Roger Andersson & George Galster & Timo M Kauppinen, 2008. "Are immigrants’ earnings influenced by the characteristics of their neighbours?," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 40(4), pages 785-805, April.
    5. Mats Hammarstedt, 2006. "The predicted earnings differential and immigrant self-employment in Sweden," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(6), pages 619-630.
    6. George J. Borjas, 1994. "The Economics of Immigration," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1667-1717, December.
    7. Christian Dustmann & Francesca Fabbri, 2005. "Immigrants in the British labour market," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 26(4), pages 423-470, December.
    8. George J. Borjas, 1986. "The Self-Employment Experience of Immigrants," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 21(4), pages 485-506.
    9. Olof Åslund & Dan-Olof Rooth, 2005. "Shifts in attitudes and labor market discrimination: Swedish experiences after 9-11," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 18(4), pages 603-629, November.
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    More about this item


    Entrepreneurship; gender; immigrant status; segmentation; division of labour;

    JEL classification:

    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship

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