Energy transitions in Europe: 1600-2000
The paper focuses on energy transitions in Europe over the last four centuries. Special attention is given to the models of theoretical explanations for the historical energy transitions and how these may be empirically assessed. The twin model of serial substitutions (supply side) and energy ladder (demand side) does not provide enough of an economic perspective. It is argued that a more evolutionary perspective is necessary, such as the development block model. The paper shows some transition results from a recently established database with long time series data on energy for Western Europe (different sources of energy) and compares transitions across countries, exemplified by the wood to coal transition in England and Sweden.
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- Kerstin Enflo & Astrid Kander & Lennart Schön, 2008. "Identifying development blocks—a new methodology," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 18(1), pages 57-76, February.